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1993,1994,1995年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

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1993年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary

In each sentence, decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choices in the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

1.    The board deemed it urgent that these files ________ right away.

[A] had to be printed

[B] should have been printed

[C] must be printed

[D] should be printed

2.    The local health organization is reported ________ twenty-five years ago when Dr. Audon became its first president.

[A] to be set up

[B] being set up

[C] to have been set up

[D] having been set up

3.    The school board listened quietly as John read the demands that his followers ________ for.

[A] be demonstrating

[B] demonstrate

[C] had been demonstrating

[D] have demonstrated

4.    Ted had told me that he always escapes ________ as he has got a very fast sport car.

[A] to fine

[B] to be fined

[C] being fined

[D] having been fined

5.    More than one third of the Chinese in the United States live in California, ________ in San Francisco.

[A] previously

[B] predominantly

[C] practically

[D] permanently

6.    Prof. Lee’s book will show you ________ can be used in other contexts.

[A] that you have observed

[B] that how you have observed

[C] how that you have observed

[D] how what you have observed

7.    All fights ________ because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.

[A] were canceled

[B] had been canceled

[C] having canceled

[D] having been canceled

8.    The new secretary has written a remarkably ________ report only in a few pages but with all the details.

[A] concise

[B] clear

[C] precise

[D] elaborate

9.    With prices ________ so much, it’s hard for the company to plan a budget.

[A] fluctuating

[B] waving

[C] swinging

[D] vibrating

10.   Expert say walking is one of the best ways for a person to ________ healthy.

[A] preserve

[B] stay

[C] maintain

[D] reserve

11.   Expected noises are usually more ________ than unexpected ones of the like magnitude.

[A] manageable

[B] controllable

[C] tolerable

[D] perceivable

12.   It isn’t so much whether he works hard; the question is whether he works ________.

[A] above all

[B] in all

[C] at all

[D] after all

13.   There is an incorrect assumption among scientists and medical people that everyone agrees ________ what constitutes a benefit to an individual.

[A] on

[B] with

[C] to

[D] in

14.   All the information we have collected in relation to that case ________ very little.

[A] makes up for

[B] adds up to

[C] comes up with

[D] puts up with

15.   A really powerful speaker can ________ the feelings of the audience to the fever of excitement.

[A] work out

[B] work over

[C] work at

[D] work up

16.   Before the students set off, they spent much time setting a limit ________ the expenses of the trip.

[A] to

[B] about

[C] in

[D] for

17.   According to the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, wisdom comes from the ________ of maturity.

[A] fulfillment

[B] achievement

[C] establishment

[D] accomplishment

18.   From the tears in Nedra’s eyes we can deduce that something sad ________.

[A] must have occurred

[B] would have occurred

[C] might be occurring

[D] should occur

19.   You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting ________ you don’t mind taking the night train.

[A] provided

[B] unless

[C] though

[D] until

20.   Hardly a month goes by without ________ of another survey revealing new depths of scientific illiteracy among U.S. citizens.

[A] words

[B] a word

[C] the word

[D] word

21.   If you ________ Jerry Brown until recently, you’d think the photograph on the right was strange.

[A] shouldn’t contact

[B] didn’t contact

[C] weren’t to contact

[D] hadn’t contacted

22.   Some teenagers harbor a generalized resentment against society, which ________ them the rights and privileges of adults, although physically they are mature.

[A] deprives

[B] restricts

[C] rejects

[D] denies

23.   I must go now. ________, if you want that book I’ll bring it next time.

[A] Incidentally

[B] Accidentally

[C] Occasionally

[D] Subsequently

24.   There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, ________ they can limit how much water you drink.

[A] much more than

[B] no more than

[C] no less than

[D] any more than

25.   Though ________ in San Francisco, Dave Mitchell had always preferred to record the plain facts of small-town life.

[A] raised

[B] grown

[C] developed

[D] cultivated

26.   Most electronic devices of this kind, ________ manufactured for such purposes, are tightly packed.

[A] that are

[B] as are

[C] which is

[D] it is

27.   As for the winter, it is inconvenient to be cold, with most of ________ furnace fuel is allowed saved for the dawn.

[A] what

[B] that

[C] which

[D] such

28.   Achieving a high degree of proficiency in English as a foreign language is not a mysterious ________ without scientific basic.

[A] process

[B] practice

[C] procedure

[D] program

29.   We cannot always ________ the wind, so new windmills should be so designed that they can also be driven by water.

[A] hang on

[B] count on

[C] hold on

[D] come on

30.   The storm sweeping over this area now is sure to cause ________ of vegetables in the coming days.

[A] rarity

[B] scarcity

[C] invalidity

[D] variety

Section II: Reading Comprehension

Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (30 points)

Text 1

Is language, like food, a basic human need without which a child at a critical period of life can be starved and damaged? Judging from the drastic experiment of Frederick II in the thirteenth century, it may be. Hoping to discover what language a child would speak if he heard no mother tongue, he told the nurses to keep silent.

All the infants died before the first year. But clearly there was more than lack of language here. What was missing was good mothering. Without good mothering, in the first year of life especially, the capacity to survive is seriously affected.

Today no such severe lack exists as that ordered by Frederick. Nevertheless, some children are still backward in speaking. Most often the reason for this is that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant, whose brain is programmed to learn language rapidly. If these sensitive periods are neglected, the ideal time for acquiring skills passes and they might never be learned so easily again. A bird learns to sing and to fly rapidly at the right time, but the process is slow and hard once the critical stage has passed.

Experts suggest that speech stages are reached in a fixed sequence and at a constant age, but there are cases where speech has started late in a child who eventually turns out to be of high IQ. At twelve weeks a baby smiles and makes vowel-like sounds; at twelve months he can speak simple words and understand simple commands; at eighteen months he has a vocabulary of three to fifty words. At three he knows about 1,000 words which he can put into sentences, and at four his language differs from that of his parents in style rather than grammar.

Recent evidence suggests that an infant is born with the capacity to speak. What is special about man’s brain, compared with that of the monkey, is the complex system which enables a child to connect the sight and feel of, say, a toy-bear with the sound pattern “toy-bear.” And even more incredible is the young brain’s ability to pick out an order in language from the mixture of sound around him, to analyze, to combine and recombine the parts of a language in new ways.

But speech has to be induced, and this depends on interaction between the mother and the child, where the mother recognizes the signals in the childs babbling (咿呀学语), grasping and smiling, and responds to them. Insensitivity of the mother to these signals dulls the interaction because the child gets discouraged and sends out only the obvious signals. Sensitivity to the child’s non-verbal signals is essential to the growth and development of language.

31.   The purpose of Frederick II’s experiment was ________.

[A] to prove that children are born with the ability to speak

[B] to discover what language a child would speak without hearing any human speech

[C] to find out what role careful nursing would play in teaching a child to speak

[D] to prove that a child could be damaged without learning a language

32.   The reason some children are backward in speaking is most probably that ________.

[A] they are incapable of learning language rapidly

[B] they are exposed to too much language at once

[C] their mothers respond inadequately to their attempts to speak

[D] their mothers are not intelligent enough to help them

33.   What is exceptionally remarkable about a child is that ________.

[A] he is born with the capacity to speak

[B] he has a brain more complex than an animal’s

[C] he can produce his own sentences

[D] he owes his speech ability to good nursing

34.   Which of the following can NOT be inferred from the passage?

[A] The faculty of speech is inborn in man.

[B] Encouragement is anything but essential to a child in language learning.

[C] The child’s brain is highly selective.

[D] Most children learn their language in definite stages.

35.   If a child starts to speak later than others, he will ________.

[A] have a high IQ

[B] be less intelligent

[C] be insensitive to verbal signals

[D] not necessarily be backward

Text 2

In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic (官僚主义的) management in which man becomes a small, well-oiled cog in the machinery. The oiling is done with higher wages, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human-relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he does not wholeheartedly participate in his work and that he is bored with it. In fact, the blue- and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.

The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction or interest in life. They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.

Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the tight mixture of submissiveness and independence. From that moment on they are tested again and again -- by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow-competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.

Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise” capitalism? Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities -- those of love and of reason -- are the aims of all social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.

36.   By “a well-oiled cog in the machinery” the author intends to render the idea that man is ________.

[A] a necessary part of the society though each individual’s function is negligible

[B] working in complete harmony with the rest of the society

[C] an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society, though functioning smoothly

[D] a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly

37.   The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that ________.

[A] they are likely to lose their jobs

[B] they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life

[C] they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence

[D] they are deprived of their individuality and independence

38.   From the passage we can infer that real happiness of life belongs to those ________.

[A] who are at the bottom of the society

[B] who are higher up in their social status

[C] who prove better than their fellow-competitors

[D] who could keep far away from this competitive world

39.   To solve the present social problems the author suggests that we should ________.

[A] resort to the production mode of our ancestors

[B] offer higher wages to the workers and employees

[C] enable man to fully develop his potentialities

[D] take the fundamental realities for granted

40.   The author’s attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of ________.

[A] approval

[B] dissatisfaction

[C] suspicion

[D] tolerance

Text 3

When an invention is made, the inventor has three possible courses of action open to him: he can give the invention to the world by publishing it, keep the idea secret, or patent it.

A granted patent is the result of a bargain struck between an inventor and the state, by which the inventor gets a limited period of monopoly (垄断) and publishes full details of his invention to the public after that period terminates.

Only in the most exceptional circumstances is the lifespan of a patent extended to alter this normal process of events.

The longest extension ever granted was to Georges Valensi; his 1939 patent for color TV receiver circuitry was extended until 1971 because for most of the patent’s normal life there was no colour TV to receive and thus no hope of reward for the invention.

Because a patent remains permanently public after it has terminated, the shelves of the library attached to the patent office contain details of literally millions of ideas that are free for anyone to use and, if older than half a century, sometimes even re-patent. Indeed, patent experts often advise anyone wishing to avoid the high cost of conducting a search through live patents that the one sure way of avoiding violation of any other inventor’s right is to plagiarize a dead patent.

Likewise, because publication of an idea in any other form permanently invalidates further patents on that idea, it is traditionally safe to take ideas from other areas of print. Much modern technological advance is based on these presumptions of legal security.

Anyone closely involved in patents and inventions soon learns that most “new” ideas are, in fact, as old as the hills. It is their reduction to commercial practice, either through necessity or dedication, or through the availability of new technology, that makes news and money. The basic patent for the theory of magnetic recording dates back to 1886. Many of the original ideas behind television originate from the late 19th and early 20th century. Even the Volkswagen rear engine car was anticipated by a 1904 patent for a cart with the horse at the rear.

41.   The passage is mainly about ________.

[A] an approach to patents

[B] the application for patents

[C] the use of patents

[D] the access to patents

42.   Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?

[A] When a patent becomes out of effect, it can be re-patented or extended if necessary.

[B] It is necessary for an inventor to apply for a patent before he makes his invention public.

[C] A patent holder must publicize the details of his invention when its legal period is over.

[D] One can get all the details of a patented invention from a library attached to the patent office.

43.   George Valensi’s patent lasted until 1971 because ________.

[A] nobody would offer any reward for his patent prior to that time

[B] his patent could not be put to use for an unusually long time

[C] there were not enough TV stations to provide colour programmes

[D] the colour TV receiver was not available until that time

44.   The word “plagiarize” (line 8, Para. 5) most probably means “________.”

[A] steal and use

[B] give reward to

[C] make public

[D] take and change

45.   From the passage we learn that ________.

[A] an invention will not benefit the inventor unless it is reduced to commercial practice

[B] products are actually inventions which were made a long time ago

[C] it is much cheaper to buy an old patent than a new one

[D] patent experts often recommend patents to others by conducting a search through dead patents

Section III: Close Test

For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (15 points)

Although interior design has existed since the beginning of architecture, its development into a specialized field is really quite recent. Interior designers have become important partly because of the many functions that might be __46__ in a single large building.

The importance of interior design becomes __47__ when we realize how much time we __48__ surrounded by four walls. Whenever we need to be indoors, we want our surroundings to be __49__ attractive and comfortable as possible. We also expect __50__ place to be appropriate to its use. You would be __51__ if the inside of your bedroom were suddenly changed to look __52__ the inside of a restaurant. And you wouldn’t feel __53__ in a business office that has the appearance of a school.

It soon becomes clear that the interior designer’s most important basic __54__ is the function of the particular __55__. For example, a theater with poor sight lines, poor sound-shaping qualities, and __56__ few entries and exits will not work for __57__ purpose, no matter how beautifully it might be __58__. Nevertheless, for any kind of space, the designer has to make many of the same kind of __59__. He or she must coordinate the shapes, lighting and decoration of everything from ceiling to floor. __60__ addition, the designer must usually select furniture or design built-in furniture, according to the functions that need to be served.

46.   [A] consisted

[B] contained

[C] composed

[D] comprised

47.   [A] obscure

[B] attractive

[C] appropriate

[D] evident

48.   [A] spend

[B] require

[C] settle

[D] retain

49.   [A] so

[B] as

[C] thus

[D] such

50.   [A] some

[B] any

[C] this

[D] each

51.   [A] amused

[B] interested

[C] shocked

[D] frightened

52.   [A] like

[B] for

[C] at

[D] into

53.   [A] correct

[B] proper

[C] right

[D] suitable

54.   [A] care

[B] concern

[C] attention

[D] intention

55.   [A] circumstance

[B] environment

[C] surroundings

[D] space

56.   [A] too

[B] quite

[C] a

[D] far

57.   [A] their

[B] its

[C] those

[D] that

58.   [A] painted

[B] covered

[C] ornamented

[D] decorated

59.   [A] solutions

[B] conclusions

[C] decisions

[D] determinations

60.   [A] For

[B] In

[C] As

[D] With

Section IV: Error-detection and Correction

Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. Then, without altering the meaning of the sentence, write down your correction on the line on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

EXAMPLE:

A number of [A] foreign visitors were taken [B] to the industrial exhibition which [C] they saw [D] many new products.

Answer [C] is wrong because the sentence should read, “A number of foreign visitors were taken to the industrial exhibition where they saw many new products.” So you should choose [C] and write the correction “where” on the line.

Sample Answer

[A] [B] [] [D] where

61.   He cannot tell the difference between true [A] praise and flattering [B] statements making [C] only to gain [D] his favor.

62.   They want to expose those educational [A] disadvantaged students to creative, enriching [B] educational experiences [C] for a five-year [D] period.

63.   The changes that took [A] place in air travel during [B] the last sixty years would have seemed [C] completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at [D] the turn of the 19th century.

64.   I don’t think it [A] advisable that he will be assigned [B] to the job since he has no [C] experience whatsoever [D].

65.   Beethoven, the great musician, wrote [A] nine symphonies in his life, most of them were written [B] after he had lost [C] his hearing [D].

66.   Mr. Jankin regretted to blame [A] his secretary for [B] the mistake, for [C] he later discovered [D] it was his own fault.

67.   As for [A] the influence of computerization, nowhere we have seen [B] the results more clearly than in the U.S. [C], which really have surprised [D] us all.

68.   At times [A], more care goes into [B] the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than the writing [C] of features [D] and editorials.

69.   It is required by law that a husband have to pay [A] the debts of his wife until [B] formal notice is given that [C] he no longer has to pay her [D].

70.   Over [A] the years, a large number of overseas students have studied [B] at that university in the result [C] that it has [D] acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.

Section V: English-Chinese Translation

Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. (15 points)

(71) The method of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression of the necessary mode of working of the human mind; it is simply the mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and exact explanation. There is no more difference, but there is just the same kind of difference, between the mental operations of a man of science and those of an ordinary person, as there is between the operations and methods of a baker or of a butcher weighing out his goods in common scales, and the operations of a chemist in performing a difficult and complex analysis by means of his balance and finely graded weights. (72) It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner of working; but that the latter is a much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.

You will understand this better, perhaps, if I give you some familiar examples. (73) You have all heard it repeated that men of science work by means of induction (归纳法) and deduction, that by the help of these operations, they, in a sort of sense, manage to extract from Nature certain natural laws, and that out of these, by some special skill of their own, they build up their theories. (74) And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training. To hear all these large words, you would think that the mind of a man of science must be constituted differently from that of his fellow men; but if you will not be frightened by terms, you will discover that you are quite wrong, and that all these terrible apparatus are being used by yourselves every day and every hour of your lives.

There is a well-known incident in one of Motieres plays, where the author makes the hero express unbounded delight on being told that he had been talking prose (散文) during the whole of his life. In the same way, I trust that you will take comfort, and be delighted with yourselves, on the discovery that you have been acting on the principles of inductive and deductive philosophy during the same period. (75) Probably there is not one here who has not in the course of the day had occasion to set in motion a complex train of reasoning, of the very same kind, though differing in degree, as that which a scientific man goes through in tracing the causes of natural phenomena.

Section VI: Writing

DIRECTIONS:

[A] Title: ADVERTISEMENT ON TV

[B] Time limit: 40 minutes

[C] Word limit: 120-150 words (not including the given opening sentence)

[D] Your composition should be based at the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence: “Today more and more advertisements are seen on the TV screen.”

[E] Your composition must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

OUTLINE:

l. Present state

2. Reasons

3. My comments

 

1993年参考答案

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary (15 points)

1.    [D]  2.    [C]  3.    [C]  4.    [C]  5.    [B]

6.    [D]  7.    [D]  8.    [A]  9.    [A]  10.   [B]

11.   [C]  12.   [C]  13.   [A]  14.   [B]   15.   [D]

16.   [A]  17.   [B]   18.   [A]  19.   [A]  20.   [D]

21.   [D]  22.   [D]  23.   [A]  24.   [D]  25.   [A]

26.   [B]   27.   [A]  28.   [A]  29.   [B]   30.   [B]

Section II: Reading Comprehension (30 points)

31.   [B]   32.   [C]  33.   [C]  34.   [B]   35.   [D]

36.   [C]  37.   [D]  38.   [D]  39.   [C]  40.   [B]

41.   [D]  42.   [C]  43.   [B]   44.   [A]  45.   [A]

Section III: Cloze Test (15 points)

46.   [B]   47.   [D]  48.   [A]  49.   [B]   50.   [D]

51.   [C]  52.   [A]  53.   [C]  54.   [B]   55.   [D]

56.   [A]  57.   [B]   58.   [D]  59.   [C]  60.   [B]

Section IV: Error-detection and Correction (10 points)

61.   [C] made 62.   [A] educationally

63.   [A] have taken       64.   [B] (should) be assigned

65.   [B] written      66.   [A] having blamed

67.   [B] have we seen    68.   [C] into the writing

69.   [D] to pay them     70.   [C] with the result

Section V: English-Chinese Translation (15 points)

71.   科学研究的方法不过是人类思维活动的必要表达方式,也就是对一切现象进行思索并给以精确而严谨解释的表达方式。

72.   这并不是说面包师或卖肉者所用的磅秤和化学家所用的天平在构造原理或工作方式上存在差别,而是说与前者相比,后者是一种更精密得多的装置,因而在计量上必然更准确得多。

73.   你们都多次听说过,科学家是用归纳法和演绎法工作的,他们用这些方法,在某种意义上说,力求从自然界找出某些自然规律,然后他们根据这些规律,用自己的某种非同一般的本领,建立起他们的理论。

74.   许多人以为,普通人的思维活动根本无法与科学家的思维过程相比,认为这些思维过程必须经过某种专门训练才能掌握。

75.   在座的诸位中,大概不会有人一整天都没有机会进行一连串复杂的思考活动,这些思考活动与科学家在探索自然现象原因时所经历的思考活动,尽管复杂程度不同,但在类型上是完全一样的。

Section VI: Writing (15 points)

76.   参考范文(略)

 

1994年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary

Part A

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], B), [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)

1.    By the time you arrive in London, we ________ in Europe for two weeks.

[A] shall stay

[B] have stayed

[C] will have stayed

[D] have been staying

2.    I appreciated ________ the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

[A] having been given

[B] having given

[C] to have been given

[D] to have given

3.    Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, ________ obtaining water is not the least.

[A] of which

[B] for what

[C] as

[D] whose

4.    The heart is ________ intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

[A] not so

[B] not much

[C] much more

[D] no more

5.    ________ the fact that his initial experiments had failed, Prof. White persisted in his research.

[A] Because of

[B] As to

[C] In spite of

[D] In view of

6.    Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it ________ in religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.

[A] is to be analyzed

[B] has been analyzed

[C] be analyzed

[D] should have been analyzed

7.    The millions of calculations involved, had they been done by hand, ________ all practical value by the time they finished.

[A] could lose

[B] would have lost

[C] might lose

[D] ought to have lost

8.    No bread eaten by man is so sweet as ________ earned by his own labour.

[A] one

[B] that

[C] such

[D] what

9.    It isn’t cold enough for there ________ a frost tonight, so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely.

[A] would be

[B] being

[C] was

[D] to be

10.   Scientists generally agree that the Earth’s climate will warm up over the next 50 to 100 years ________ it has warmed in the 20,000 years since the Ice Age.

[A] as long as

[B] as much as

[C] as soon as

[D] as well as

Part B

Directions:

Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)

11.   Similar elements in the prehistoric remains [A] from both areas suggest [B] that Indians and their neighbours had maintained [C] distant but real connections ever [D] before 1500 B. C.

12.   It soon became obviously [A] that instead of being trained [B] to sing she would [C] be trained as [D] the astronomer’s assistant.

13.   He also conceived [A] that the solar system and the universe would come [B] into existence by [C] a natural process and would disappear [D] one day.

14.   The moon has a mass that is nearly one hundred times less [A] than the earth [B]; in consequence [C],the force of [D] gravity at the moon’s surface is only one-sixth of that at the earth’s surface.

15.   “The Bunsen burner is so [A] named because it is thought [B] to be invented [C] by Robert Bunsen, who was German by [D] birth.

16.   Much although [A] I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal [B] her in thoroughness, whatever [C] the job [D].

17.   The weeds [A] and tall grass in that yard makes [B] the house look [C] as if it had been vacant [D] for quite some time.

18.   If only [A] the nature of the aging process is [B] better understood, the possibility of discovering [C] a medicine that can block the fundamental process of aging seems [D] very remote.

19.   When I consider how talented he is [A] as a painter [B], I cannot help but believing [C] that the public [D] will appreciate his gift.

20.   Allen has stated [A] that he has always had [B] a great interest [C] and admiration for [D] the work of the British economist Keynes.

Part C

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

21.   Please do not be ________ by his bad manners since he is merely trying to attract attention.

[A] disregarded

[B] distorted

[C] irritated

[D] intervened

22.   Craig assured his boss that he would ________ all his energies in doing this new job.

[A] call forth

[B] call at

[C] call on

[D] call off

23.   Too much ________ to X-rays can cause skin burns, cancer or other damage to the body.

[A] disclosure

[B] exhibition

[C] contact

[D] exposure

24.   When confronted with such questions, my mind goes ________, and I can hardly remember my own date of birth.

[A] dim

[B] blank

[C] faint

[D] vain

25.   It is well known that knowledge is the ________ condition for expansion of mind.

[A] incompatible

[B] incredible

[C] indefinite

[D] indispensable

26.   More than two hundred years ago the United States ________ from the British Empire and become an independent country.

[A] got off

[B] pulled down

[C] broke away

[D] attached to

27.   Care should be taken to decrease the length of time that one is ________ loud continuous noise.

[A] subjected to

[B] filled with

[C] associated with

[D] dropped off

28.   Some of the most important concepts in physics ________ their success to these mathematical systems.

[A] oblige

[B] owe

[C] contribute

[D] attribute

29.   As your instructor advised, you ought to spend your time on something ________ researching into.

[A] precious

[B] worth

[C] worthy

[D] valuable

30.   As a defense against air-pollution damage, many plants and animals ________ a substance to absorb harmful chemicals.

[A] relieve

[B] release

[C] dismiss

[D] discard

31.   Without the friction between their feet and the ground, people would ________ be able to walk.

[A] in no time

[B] by all means

[C] in no way

[D] on any account

32.   While typing, Helen has a habit of stopping ________ to give her long and flowing hair a smooth.

[A] occasionally

[B] simultaneously

[C] eventually

[D] promptly

33.   One reason for the successes of Asian immigrants in the U.S. is that they have taken great ________ to educate their children.

[A] efforts

[B] pains

[C] attempts

[D] endeavours

34.   If any man here does not agree with me, he should ________ his own plan for improving the living conditions of these people.

[A] put on

[B] put out

[C] put in

[D] put forward

35.   I support your decision, but I should also make it clear that I am not going to be ________ to it.

[A] connected

[B] fastened

[C] bound

[D] stuck

36.   The English language contains a(n) ________ of words which are comparative seldom used in ordinary conversation.

[A] altitude

[B] latitude

[C] multitude

[D] attitude

37.   In my opinion, you can widen the ________ of these improvements through your active participation.

[A] dimension

[B] volume

[C] magnitude

[D] scope

38.   Your improper words will give ________ to doubts concerning your true intentions.

[A] rise

[B] reason

[C] suspicion

[D] impulse

39.   The news item about the fire is followed by a detailed report made ________.

[A] on the spot

[B] on the site

[C] on the location

[D] on the ground

40.   The remarkable ________ of life on the Galopagos Islands inspired Charles Darwin to establish his theory of evolution.

[A] classification

[B] variety

[C] density

[D] diversion

Section II: Cloze Test

Directions:

For each numbered blank in following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

The first and smallest unit that can be discussed in relation to language is the word. In speaking, the choice of words is __41__ the utmost importance. Proper selection will eliminate one source of __42__ breakdown in the communication cycle. Too often, careless use of words __43__ a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may __44__ unfavorable reactions in the listener __45__ interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down.

__46__, inaccurate or indefinite words may make __47__ difficult for the listener to understand the __48__ which is being transmitted to him. The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be __49__ to explain or describe in a __50__ that can be understood by his listeners.

41.   [A] of

[B] at

[C] for

[D] on

42.   [A] inaccessible

[B] timely

[C] likely

[D] invalid

43.   [A] encourages

[B] prevents

[C] destroys

[D] offers

44.   [A] pass out

[B] take away

[C] back up

[D] stir up

45.   [A] who

[B] as

[C] which

[D] what

46.   [A] Moreover

[B] However

[C] Preliminarily

[D] Unexpectedly

47.   [A] that

[B] It

[C] so

[D] this

48.   [A] speech

[B] sense

[C] message

[D] meaning

49.   [A] obscure

[B] difficult

[C] impossible

[D] unable

50.   [A] case

[B] means

[C] method

[D] way

Section III: Reading Comprehension

Directions:

Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

Text 1

The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. Private businessmen, striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.

An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and responded to by producers. In the American economy, this mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by seller-producers. If the product is in short supply relative to the demand, the price will be bid up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system.

The important factor in a private-enterprise economy is that individuals are allowed to own productive resources (private property), and they are permitted to hire labor, gain control over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.

51.   In Line 11, Paragraph 1, “the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes” means ________.

[A] Americans are never satisfied with their incomes

[B] Americans tend to overstate their incomes

[C] Americans want to have their incomes increased

[D] Americans want to increase the purchasing power of their incomes

52.   The first two sentences in the second paragraph tell us that ________.

[A] producers can satisfy the consumers by mechanized production

[B] consumers can express their demands through producers

[C] producers decide the prices of products

[D] supply and demand regulate prices

53.   According to the passage, a private-enterprise economy is characterized by ________.

[A] private property and rights concerned

[B] manpower and natural resources control

[C] ownership of productive resources

[D] free contracts and prices

54.   The passage is mainly about ________.

[A] how American goods are produced

[B] how American consumers buy their goods

[C] how American economic system works

[D] how American businessmen make their profits

Text 2

One hundred and thirteen million Americans have at least one bank-issued credit card. They give their owners automatic credit in stores, restaurants, and hotels, at home, across the country, and even abroad, and they make many banking services available as well. More and more of these credit cards can be read automatically, making it possible to withdraw or deposit money in scattered locations, whether or not the local branch bank is open. For many of us the “cashless society” is not on the horizon -- it’s already here.

While computers offer these conveniences to consumers, they have many advantages for sellers too. Electronic cash registers can do much more than simply ring up sales. They can keep a wide range of records, including who sold what, when, and to whom. This information allows businessmen to keep track of their list of goods by showing which items are being sold and how fast they are moving. Decisions to reorder or return goods to suppliers can then be made. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employees are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns. Computers are relied on by manufacturers for similar reasons. Computer-analyzed marketing reports can help to decide which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future, and which to drop. Computers keep track of goods in stock, of raw materials on hand, and even of the production process itself.

Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.

55.   According to the passage, the credit card enables its owner to ________.

[A] withdraw as much money from the bank as he wishes

[B] obtain more convenient services than other people do

[C] enjoy greater trust from the storekeeper

[D] cash money wherever he wishes to

56.   From the last sentence of the first paragraph we learn that ________.

[A] in the future all the Americans will use credit cards

[B] credit cards are mainly used in the United States today

[C] nowadays many Americans do not pay in cash

[D] it is now more convenient to use credit cards than before

57.   The phrase “ring up sales” (Line 3, Para. 2) most probably means “________”.

[A] make an order of goods

[B] record sales on a cash register

[C] call the sales manager

[D] keep track of the goods in stock

58.   What is this passage mainly about?

[A] Approaches to the commercial use of computers.

[B] Conveniences brought about by computers in business.

[C] Significance of automation in commercial enterprises.

[D] Advantages of credit cards in business.

Text 3

Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age. For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.

Although we focus on the needs of exceptional children, we find ourselves describing their environment as well. While the leading actor on the stage captures our attention, we are aware of the importance of the supporting players and the scenery of the play itself. Both the family and the society in which exceptional children live are often the key to their growth and development. And it is in the public schools that we find the full expression of society’s understanding -- the knowledge, hopes, and fears that are passed on to the next generation.

Education in any society is a mirror of that society. In that mirror we can see the strengths, the weaknesses, the hopes, the prejudices, and the central values of the culture itself. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.

All men are created equal.” We’ve heard it many times, but it still has important meaning for education in a democratic society. Although the phrase was used by this country’s founders to denote equality before the law, it has also been interpreted to mean equality of opportunity. That concept implies educational opportunity for all children -- the right of each child to receive help in learning to the limits of his or her capacity, whether that capacity be small or great. Recent court decisions have confirmed the right of all children -- disabled or not -- to an appropriate education, and have ordered that public schools take the necessary steps to provide that education. In response, schools are modifying their programs, adapting instruction to children who are exceptional, to those who cannot profit substantially from regular programs.

59.   In Paragraph 2, the author cites the example of the leading actor on the stage to show that

[A] the growth of exceptional children has much to do with their family and the society

[B] exceptional children are more influenced by their families than normal children are

[C] exceptional children are the key interest of the family and society

[D] the needs of the society weigh much heavier than the needs of the exceptional children

60.   The reason that the exceptional children receive so much concern in education is that ________.

[A] they are expected to be leaders of the society

[B] they might become a burden of the society

[C] they should fully develop their potentials

[D] disabled children deserve special consideration

61.   This passage mainly deals with ________.

[A] the differences of children in their learning capabilities

[B] the definition of exceptional children in modern society

[C] the special educational programs for exceptional children

[D] the necessity of adapting education to exceptional children

62.   From this passage we learn that the educational concern for exceptional children ________.

[A] is now enjoying legal support

[B] disagrees with the tradition of the country

[C] was clearly stated by the country’s founders

[D] will exert great influence over court decisions

Text 4

I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we’ll know in vast detail how cancer cells arise,” says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer. “But,” he cautions, “some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur, he discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available.”

This year, 50 percent of the 910,000 people who suffer from cancer will survive at least five years. In the year 2000, the National Cancer Institute estimates, that figure will be 75 percent. For some skin cancers, the five-year survival rate is as high as 90 percent. But other survival statistics are still discouraging -- 13 percent for lung cancer, and 2 percent for cancer of the pancreas.

With as many as 120 varieties in existence, discovering how cancer works is not easy. The researchers made great progress in the early 1970s, when they discovered that oncogenes, which are cancer-causing genes, are inactive in normal cells. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown. If several oncogenes are driven into action, the cell, unable to turn them off, becomes cancerous.

The exact mechanisms involved are still mysterious, but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers. “Changes are a normal part of the evolutionary process,” says oncologist William Hayward. Environmental factors can never be totally eliminated; as Hayward points out, “We can’t prepare a medicine against cosmic rays.”

The prospects for cure, though still distant, are brighter.

First, we need to understand how the normal cell controls itself. Second, we have to determine whether there are a limited number of genes in cells which are always responsible for at least part of the trouble. If we can understand how cancer works, we can counteract its action.”

63.   The example of Pasteur in the passage is used to ________.

[A] predict that the secret of cancer will be disclosed in a decade

[B] indicate that the prospects for curing cancer are bright

[C] prove that cancer will be cured in fifty to sixty years

[D] warn that there is still a long way to go before cancer can be conquered

64.   The author implies that by the year 2000, ________.

[A] there will be a drastic rise in the five-year survival rate of skin-cancer patients

[B] 90 percent of the skin-cancer patients today will still be living

[C] the survival statistics will be fairly even among patients with various cancers

[D] there won’ t be a drastic increase of survival rate of all cancer patients

65.   Oncogenes are cancer-causing genes ________.

[A] that are always in operation in a healthy person

[B] which remain unharmful so long as they are not activated

[C] that can be driven out of normal cells

[D] which normal cells can’t turn off

66.   The word “dormant” in the third paragraph most probably means ________.

[A] dead

[B] ever-present

[C] inactive

[D] potential

Text 5

Discoveries in science and technology are thought by “untaught minds” to come in blinding flashes or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovations almost always come out of laborious trial and error. Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score.

The point is that the players who score most are the ones who take most shots at the goal -- and so it goes with innovation in any field of activity. The prime difference between innovation and others is one of approach. Everybody gets ideas, but innovators work consciously on theirs, and they follow them through until they prove practicable or otherwise. What ordinary people see as fanciful abstractions, professional innovators see as solid possibilities.

Creative thinking may mean simply the realization that there’s no particular virtue in doing things the way they have always been done,” wrote Rudolph Flesch, a language authority. This accounts for our reaction to seemingly simple innovations like plastic garbage bags and suitcases on wheels that make life more convenient: “How come nobody thought of that before?”

The creative approach begins with the proposition that nothing is as it appears. Innovators will not accept that there is only one way to do anything. Faced with getting from A to B, the average person will automatically set out on the best-known and apparently simplest route. The innovator will search for alternate courses, which may prove easier in the long run and are bound to be more interesting and challenging even if they lead to dead ends.

Highly creative individuals really do march to a different drummer.

67.   What does the author probably mean by “untaught mind” in the first paragraph?

[A] A person ignorant of the hard work involved in experimentation.

[B] A citizen of a society that restricts personal creativity.

[C] A person who has had no education.

[D] An individual who often comes up with new ideas by accident.

68.   According to the author, what distinguishes innovators from non-innovators?

[A] The variety of ideas they have.

[B] The intelligence they possess.

[C] The way they deal with problems.

[D] The way they present their findings.

69.   The author quotes Rudolph Flesch in Paragraph 3 because ________.

[A] Rudolph Flesch is the best-known expert in the study of human creativity

[B] the quotation strengthens the assertion that creative individuals look for new ways of doing things

[C] the reader is familiar with Rudolph Flesch’s point of view

[D] the quotation adds a new idea to the information previously presented

70.   The phrase “march to a different drummer” (the last line of the passage) suggests that highly creative individuals are ________.

[A] diligent in pursuing their goals

[B] reluctant to follow common ways of doing things

[C] devoted to the progress of science

[D] concerned about the advance of society

Section IV: English-Chinese Translation

Directions:

Read the following passage carefully and then translate underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

According to the new school of scientists, technology is an overlooked force in expanding the horizons of scientific knowledge. (71) Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools. (72) “In short,” a leader of the new school contends, “the scientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions.” (73) Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science. The modern school that hails technology argues that such masters as Galileo, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, and inventors such as Edison attached great importance to, and derived great benefit from, craft information and technological devices of different kinds that were usable in scientific experiments.

The centerpiece of the argument of a technology-yes, genius-no advocate was an analysis of Galileo’s role at the start of the scientific revolution. The wisdom of the day was derived from Ptolemy, an astronomer of the second century, whose elaborate system of the sky put Earth at the center of all heavenly motions. (74) Galileo’s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the Earth. But the real hero of the story, according to the new school of scientists, was the long evolution in the improvement of machinery for making eyeglasses.

Federal policy is necessarily involved in the technology vs. genius dispute. (75) Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force.

Section V: Writing

DIRECTIONS:

[A] Title: ON MAKING FRIENDS

[B] TIME LIMIT: 40 minutes

[C] Word limit: 120-150 words (not including the given opening sentence)

[D] Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence: “As a human being, one can hardly do without a friend.”

[E] Your composition must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

OUTLINE:

l. The need for friends

2. True friendship

3. My principle in making friends

 

1994年参考答案

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary (20 points)

Part A (5 points)

1.    [C]  2.    [A]  3.    [A]  4.    [D]  5.    [C]

6.    [C]  7.    [B]   8.    [B]   9.    [D]  10.   [B]

Part B (5 points)

11.   [D] even  12.   [A] obvious

13.   [B] had come  14.   [B] that of the earth

15.   [C] to have been invented      16.   [A] Much as Much though

17.   [B] make 18.   [A] Unless (=if... not)

19.   [C] 删去 but 或将 believing 改为 believe 20.   [C] a great interest in

Part C (10 points)

21.   [C]  22.   [A]  23.   [D]  24.   [B]   25.   [D]

26.   [C]  27.   [A]  28.   [B]   29.   [B]   30.   [B]

31.   [C]  32.   [A]  33.   [B]   34.   [D]  35.   [C]

36.   [C]  37.   [D]  38.   [A]  39.   [A]  40.   [B]

Section II: Cloze Test (10 points)

41.   [A]  42.   [C]  43.   [B]   44.   [D]  45.   [C]

46.   [A]  47.   [B]   48.   [C]  49.   [D]  50.   [D]

Section III: Reading Comprehension (40 points)

51.   [D]  52.   [D]  53.   [A]  54.   [C]  55.   [B]

56.   [C]  57.   [B]   58.   [B]   59.   [A]  60.   [C]

61.   [D]  62.   [A]  63.   [D]  64.   [D]  65.   [B]

66.   [C]  67.   [A]  68.   [C]  69.   [B]   70.   [B]

Section IV: English-Chinese Translation (15 points)

71.   他们(新学派科学家们)说,科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼识,不如说源于改进了的技术和工具等等更为普通的东西。

72.   新学派的一位领袖人物坚持说:“简而言之,我们所称谓的科学革命,主要是指一系列器具的改进、发明和使用,这些改进、发明和使用使科学发展的范围无所不及。”

73.   工具和技术本身作为根本性创新的源泉多年来在很大程度上被科学史学家和科学思想家们忽视了。

74.   伽里略的最光辉的业绩在于他在1609年第一个把新发明的望远镜对准天空,以证实行星是围绕太阳旋转,而不是围绕地球。

75.   政府究竟是以减少对技术的经费投入来增加对纯理论科学的经费投入,还是相反,这往往取决于把哪一方看作是驱动的力量。

Section V: Writing (15 points)

76.   参考范文(略)

 

1995年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary

Part A:

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)

1.    Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed ________.

[A] had produced

[B] have been produced

[C] would have produced

[D] had been produced

2.    There ought to be less anxiety over the perceived risk of getting cancer than ________ in the public mind today.

[A] exists

[B] exist

[C] existing

[D] existed

3.    The professor can hardly find sufficient grounds ________ his argument in favor of the new theory.

[A] which to base on

[B] on which to base

[C] to base on which

[D] which to be based on

4.    ________ can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.

[A] Everybody

[B] Anybody

[C] Somebody

[D] Nobody

5.    How many of us ________, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion?

[A] attended

[B] Attending

[C] to attend

[D] have attended

6.    Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe ________ it provides he building blocs from which the other elements are produced.

[A] so that

[B] but that

[C] in that

[D] provided that

7.    We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style ________ in a personal one.

[A] rather than

[B] Other than

[C] better than

[D] less than

8.    ________ is generally accepted, economical growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

[A] What

[B] That

[C] It

[D] As

9.    It is believed that today’s pop music can serve as a creative force ________ stimulating the thinking of its listeners.

[A] by

[B] with

[C] at

[D] on

10.   Just as the soil is a part of the earth, ________ the atmosphere.

[A] as it is

[B] the same as

[C] so is

[D] and so is

Part B

Directions:

Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)

11.   The conveniences that Americans desire reflecting [A] not so much a leisurely [B] lifestyle as a busy lifestyle in which even minutes of time are [C] too valuable to be wasted [D].

12.   In debating one must correct the opponent’s [A] facts, deny the relevance of his proof, or deny that [B] what [C] he presents as proof, unless [D] relevant, is sufficient.

13.   We are not conscious of [A] the extent of which [B] provides the psychological satisfaction that [C] can make the difference [D] between a full and an empty life.

14.   The Portuguese give [A] a great deal of credit to one man [B] for having promoted [C] sea travel, that man was [D] Prince Henry the navigator, who lived in the 15th century.

15.   Accounts of [A] scientific experiments are generally correct for [B] those write about [C] science are careful in checking [D] the accuracy of their reports.

16.   whenever we hear of [A] a natural disaster, even [B] in a distant part of the world, we feel sympathy [C] for the people to have affected [D].

17.   It is perhaps not an exaggeration to say [A] that we shall soon be trusting [B] our health, wealth and happiness to elements with whom [C] very names the general public are [D] unfamiliar.

18.   The speaker claimed that no other [A] modern nation devotes so small [B] a portion of its wealth to public assistance and health than [C] the United States does [D].

19.   There are those who consider it questionable that these defence-linked [A] research projects will account for [B] an improvement in the standard of living or, alternately, to do much [C] to protect our diminishing [D] resources.

20.   If individuals are awakened [A] each time as [B] they begin a dream phase of sleep, they are likely to become irritable even though [C] their total amount of sleep has been [D] sufficient.

Part C:

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

21.   In that country, guests tend to feel they are not highly ________ if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date.

[A] admired

[B] regarded

[C] expected

[D] worshipped

22.   [A] ________ of the long report by the budget committed was submitted to the mayor for approval.

[A] shorthand

[B] scheme

[C] schedule

[D] sketch

23.   [A] man has to make ________ for his old age by putting aside enough money to live on when old.

[A] supply

[B] assurance

[C] provision

[D] adjustment

24.   The newly-built Science Building seems ________ enough to last a hundred years.

[A] spacious

[B] sophisticated

[C] substantial

[D] steady

25.   It is well-known that the retired workers in our country are ________ free medical care.

[A] entitled to

[B] involved in

[C] associated with

[D] assigned to

26.   The farmers were more anxious for rain than the people in the city because they had more at ________.

[A] danger

[B] stake

[C] loss

[D] threat

27.   I felt ________ to death because I could make nothing of the chairman’s speech.

[A] fatigued

[B] tired

[C] exhausted

[D] bored

28.   When the engine would not start, the mechanic inspected all the parts to find what was at ________.

[A] wrong

[B] trouble

[C] fault

[D] difficulty

29.   Your advice would be ________ valuable to him, who is at present at his wit’s end.

[A] exceedingly

[B] excessively

[C] extensively

[D] exclusively

30.   He failed to carry out some of the provisions of the contract, and now he has to ________ the consequences.

[A] answer for

[B] run into

[C] abide by

[D] step into

31.   The river is already ________ its banks because of excessive rainfall; and the city is threatened with a likely flood.

[A] parallel to

[B] level in

[C] flat on

[D] flush with

32.   People ________ that vertical flight transports would carry millions of passengers as do the airliners of today.

[A] convinced

[B] anticipated

[C] resolved

[D] assured

33.   In spite of the wide range of reading material specially written or ________ for language learning purposes, there is yet no comprehensive systematic programmed for the reading skills.

[A] adapted

[B] acknowledged

[C] assembled

[D] appointed

34.   The mother said she would ________ her son washing the dished if he could finish his assignment before supper.

[A] let down

[B] let alone

[C] let off

[D] let out

35.   We should always keep in mind that ________ decisions often lead to bitter regrets.

[A] urgent

[B] hasty

[C] instant

[D] prompt

36.   John complained to the bookseller that there were several pages ________ in the dictionary.

[A] missing

[B] losing

[C] dropping

[D] leaking

37.   In the past, most foresters have been men, but today, the number of women ________ this field is climbing.

[A] engaging

[B] devoting

[C] registering

[D] pursuing

38.   The supervisor didn’t have time so far to go into it ________, but he gave us an idea about his plan.

[A] at hand

[B] in turn

[C] in conclusion

[D] at length

39.   Their demand for a pay raise has not the slightest ________ of being met.

[A] prospect

[B] prediction

[C] prosperity

[D] permission

40.   It’s usually the case that people seldom behave in a ________ way when in a furious state.

[A] stable

[B] rational

[C] legal

[D] credible

Section II: Close Test

For each numbered blank in following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

Sleep is divided into periods of so-called REM sleep, characterized by rapid eye movements and dreaming, and longer periods of non-REM sleep. __41__ kind of sleep is at all well understood, but REM sleep is __42__ to serve some restorative function of the brain. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more __43__. The new experiments, such as these __44__ for the first time at a recent meeting of the Society for Sleep Research in Minneapolis, suggest fascinating explanations __45__ of non-REM sleep.

For example, it has long been known that total sleep __46__ is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet, __47__ examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal. A researcher has now __48__ the mystery of why the animals die. The rats __49__ bacterial infections of the blood, __50__ their immune systems -- the self-protecting mechanism against disease -- had crashed.

41.   [A] Either

[B] Neither

[C] Each

[D] Any

42.   [A] intended

[B] required

[C] assumed

[D] inferred

43.   [A] subtle

[B] obvious

[C] mysterious

[D] doubtful

44.   [A] maintained

[B] described

[C] settled

[D] afforded

45.   [A] in the light

[B] by virtue

[C] with the exception

[D] for the purpose

46.   [A] reduction

[B] destruction

[C] deprivation

[D] restriction

47.   [A] upon

[B] by

[C] through

[D] with

48.   [A] paid attention to

[B] caught sight of

[C] laid emphasis on

[D] cast light on

49.   [A] develop

[B] produce

[C] stimulate

[D] induce

50.   [A] if

[B] as if

[C] only if

[D] if only

Section III: Reading Comprehension

Directions:

Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

Text 1

Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I know of. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. By drawing attention to new ideas it helps enormously to raise standards of living. By helping to increase demand it ensures an increased need for labour, and is therefore an effective way to fight unemployment. It lowers the costs of many services: without advertisements your daily newspaper would cost four times as much, the price of your television license would need to be doubled, and travel by bus or tube would cost 20 per cent more.

And perhaps most important of all, advertising provides a guarantee of reasonable value in the products and services you buy. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. He might fool some people for a little while through misleading advertising. He will not do so for long, for mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior article more than once. If you see an article consistently advertised, it is the surest proof I know that the article does what is claimed for it, and that it represents good value.

Advertising does more for the material benefit of the community than any other force I can think of.

There is one more point I feel I ought to touch on. Recently I heard a well-known television personality declare that he was against advertising because it persuades rather than informs. He was drawing excessively fine distinctions. Of course advertising seeks to persuade.

If its message were confined merely to information -- and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the colour of a shirt is subtly persuasive -- advertising would be so boring that no one would pay any attention. But perhaps that is what the well-known television personality wants.

51.   By the first sentence of the passage the author means that ________.

[A] he is fairly familiar with the cost of advertising

[B] everybody knows well that advertising is money consuming

[C] advertising costs money like everything else

[D] it is worthwhile to spend money on advertising

52.   In the passage, which of the following is NOT included in the advantages of advertising?

[A] Securing greater fame.

[C] Enhancing living standards.

[B] Providing more jobs.

[D] Reducing newspaper cost.

53.   The author deems that the well-known TV personality is ________.

[A] very precise in passing his judgment on advertising

[B] interested in nothing but the buyers’ attention

[C] correct in telling the difference between persuasion and information

[D] obviously partial in his views on advertising

54.   In the author’s opinion, ________.

[A] advertising can seldom bring material benefit to man by providing information

[B] advertising informs people of new ideas rather than wins them over

[C] there is nothing wrong with advertising in persuading the buyer

[D] the buyer is not interested in getting information from an advertisement

Text 2

There are two basic ways to see growth: one as a product, the other as a process. People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be identified and measured. The worker who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language -- all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for their efforts.

By contrast, the process of personal growth is much more difficult to determine, since by definition it is a journey and not the specific signposts or landmarks along the way. The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles. In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept.

In order to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may “fail” at first. How we see ourselves as we try a new way of being is essential to our ability to grow. Do we perceive ourselves as quick and curious? If so, then we tend to take more chances and to be more open to unfamiliar experiences. Do we think we’re shy and indecisive? Then our sense of timidity can cause us to hesitate, to move slowly, and not to take a step until we know the ground is safe. Do we think we’re slow to adapt to change or that we’re not smart enough to cope with a new challenge? Then we are likely to take a more passive role or not try at all.

These feelings of insecurity and self-doubt are both unavoidable and necessary if we are to change and grow. If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow. We become trapped inside a shell of our own making.

55.   A person is generally believed to achieve personal growth when ________.

[A] he has given up his smoking habit

[B] he has made great efforts in his work

[C] he is keen on leaning anything new

[D] he has tried to determine where he is on his journey

56.   In the author’s eyes, one who views personal growth as a process would ________.

[A] succeed in climbing up the social ladder

[B] judge his ability to grow from his own achievements

[C] face difficulties and take up challenges

[D] aim high and reach his goal each time

57.   When the author says “a new way of being” (line 2~3, Para. 3) he is referring to ________.

[A] a new approach to experiencing the world

[C] a new method of perceiving ourselves

[B] a new way of taking risks

[D] a new system of adaptation to change

58.   For personal growth, the author advocates all of the following except ________.

[A] curiosity about more chances

[C] open-mindedness to new experiences

[B] promptness in self-adaptation

[D] avoidance of internal fears and doubts

Text 3

In such a changing, complex society formerly simple solutions to informational needs become complicated. Many of life’s problems which were solved by asking family members, friends or colleagues are beyond the capability of the extended family to resolve. Where to turn for expert information and how to determine which expert advice to accept are questions facing many people today.

In addition to this, there is the growing mobility of people since World War II. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. The almost unconscious flow of information about the simplest aspects of living can be cut off. Thus, things once learned subconsciously through the casual communications of the extended family must be consciously learned.

Adding to societal changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time-consuming and sometimes even overwhelming.

Coupled with the growing quantity of information is the development of technologies which enable the storage and delivery of more information with greater speed to more locations than has ever been possible before. Computer technology makes it possible to store vast amounts of data in machine-readable files, and to program computers to locate specific information. Telecommunications developments enable the sending of messages via television, radio, and very shortly, electronic mail to bombard people with multitudes of messages. Satellites have extended the power of communications to report events at the instant of occurrence. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site. Technology has facilitated the sharing of information and the storage and delivery of information, thus making more information available to more people.

In this world of change and complexity, the need for information is of greatest importance. Those people who have accurate, reliable up-to-date information to solve the day-to-day problems, the critical problems of their business, social and family life, will survive and succeed. “Knowledge is power” may well be the truest saying and access to information may be the most critical requirement of all people.

59.   The word “it” (line 3, Para. 2) most probably refers to ________.

[A] the lack of stable communities

[B] the breakdown of informal information channels

[C] the increased mobility of families

[D] the growing number of people moving from place to place

60.   The main problem people may encounter today arises from the fact that ________.

[A] they have to learn new things consciously

[B] they lack the confidence of securing reliable and trustworthy information

[C] they have difficulty obtaining the needed information readily

[D] they can hardly carry out casual communications with an extended family

61.   From the passage we can infer that ________.

[A] electronic mail will soon play a dominant role in transmitting messages

[B] it will become more difficult for people to keep secrets in an information era

[C] people will spend less time holding meetings or conferences

[D] events will be reported on the spot mainly through satellites

62.   We can learn from the last paragraph that ________.

[A] it is necessary to obtain as much knowledge as possible

[B] people should make the best use of the information

[C] we should realize the importance of accumulating information

[D] it is of vital importance to acquire needed information efficiently

Text 4

Personality is to a large extent inherent -- A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.

One place where children soak up A-characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the ‘win at all costs’ moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying: “Rejoice, we conquer!”

By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.

Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A-youngsters change into B’s. The world needs A types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child’s personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.

If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A-type stock. B’s are important and should be encouraged.

63.   According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually ________.

[A] impatient

[B] considerate

[C] aggressive

[D] agreeable

64.   The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because ________.

[A] the pressure is too great on the students

[B] some students are bound to fail

[C] failure rates are too high

[D] the results of exanimations are doubtful

65.   The selection of medical professionals is currently based on ________.

[A] candidates’ sensitivity

[B] academic achievements

[C] competitive spirit

[D] surer values

66.   From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ________.

[A] the personality of a child is well established at birth

[B] family influence dominates the shaping of one’s characteristics

[C] the development of one’s personality is due to multiple factors

[D] B-type characteristics can find no place in competitive society

Text 5

That experiences influence subsequent behaviour is evidence of an obvious but nevertheless remarkable activity called remembering. Learning could not occur without the function popularly named memory. Constant practice has such as effect on memory as to lead to skillful performance on the piano, to recitation of a poem, and even to reading and understanding these words. So-called intelligent behaviour demands memory, remembering being a primary requirement for reasoning. The ability to solve any problem or even to recognize that a problem exists depends on memory. Typically, the decision to cross a street is based on remembering many earlier experiences.

Practice (or review) tends to build and maintain memory for a task or for any learned material. Over a period of no practice what has been learned tends to be forgotten; and the adaptive consequences may not seem obvious. Yet, dramatic instances of sudden forgetting can be seen to be adaptive. In this sense, the ability to forget can be interpreted to have survived through a process of natural selection in animals. Indeed, when one’s memory of an emotionally painful experience leads to serious anxiety, forgetting may produce relief. Nevertheless, an evolutionary interpretation might make it difficult to understand how the commonly gradual process of forgetting survived natural selection.

In thinking about the evolution of memory together with all its possible aspects, it is helpful to consider what would happen if memories failed to fade. Forgetting clearly aids orientation in time, since old memories weaken and the new tend to stand out, providing clues for inferring duration. Without forgetting, adaptive ability would suffer, for example, learned behaviour that might have been correct a decade ago may no longer be. Cases are recorded of people who (by ordinary standards) forgot so little that their everyday activities were full of confusion. This forgetting seems to serve that survival of the individual and the species.

Another line of thought assumes a memory storage system of limited capacity that provides adaptive flexibility specifically through forgetting. In this view, continual adjustments are made between learning or memory storage (input) and forgetting (output). Indeed, there is evidence that the rate at which individuals forget is directly related to how much they have learned. Such data offers gross support of contemporary models of memory that assume an input-output balance.

67.   From the evolutionary point of view, ________.

[A] forgetting for lack of practice tends to be obviously inadaptive

[B] if a person gets very forgetful all of a sudden he must be very adaptive

[C] the gradual process of forgetting is an indication of an individual’s adaptability

[D] sudden forgetting may bring about adaptive consequences

68.   According to the passage, if a person never forgot, ________.

[A] he would survive best

[B] he would have a lot of trouble

[C] his ability to learn would be enhanced

[D] the evolution of memory would stop

69.   From the last paragraph we know that ________.

[A] forgetfulness is a response to learning

[B] the memory storage system is an exactly balanced input-output system

[C] memory is a compensation for forgetting

[D] the capacity of a memory storage system is limited because forgetting occurs

70.   In this article, the author tries to interpret the function of ________.

[A] remembering

[B] forgetting

[C] adapting

[D] experiencing

Section IV: English-Chinese Translation

Directions:

Read the following passage carefully and then translate underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

The standardized educational or psychological test that are widely used to aid in selecting, classifying, assigning, or promoting students, employees, and military personnel have been the target of recent attacks in books, magazines, the daily press, and even in congress. 71) The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill-informed or incompetent users. The tests themselves are merely tools, with characteristics that can be measured with reasonable precision under specified conditions. Whether the results will be valuable, meaningless, or even misleading depends partly upon the tool itself but largely upon the user.

All informed predictions of future performance are based upon some knowledge of relevant past performance: school grades, research productivity, sales records, or whatever is appropriate. 72) How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted. Anyone who keeps careful score knows that the information available is always incomplete and that the predictions are always subject to error.

Standardized tests should be considered in this context. They provide a quick, objective method of getting some kinds of information about what a person learned, the skills he has developed, or the kind of person he is. The information so obtained has, qualitatively, the same advantages and shortcomings as other kinds of information. 73) Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.

74) In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted cannot be well defined. Properly used, they provide a rapid means of getting comparable information about many people. Sometimes they identify students whose high potential has not been previously recognized, but there are many things they do not do. 75) For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

Section V: Writing

DIRECTIONS:

[A] Title: THE “PROJECT HOPE”

[B] Time limit: 40 minutes

[C] Word limit: 120-150 words (not including the given opening sentence)

[D] Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence: “Education plays a very important role in the modernization of our country.”

[E] Your composition must be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

OUTLINE:

1. Present situation

2. Necessity of the project

3. My suggestion

 

1995年参考答案

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary (20 points)

Part A (5 points)

1.    [D]  2.    [A]  3.    [B]   4.    [D]  5.    [B]

6.    [C]  7.    [A]  8.    [D]  9.    [A]  10.   [C]

Part B (5 points)

11.   [A] reflect      12.   [D] if

13.   [B] to which   14.   [D] being

15.   [C] writing aboutwho write about   16.   [D] affected

17.   [C] whose      18.   [C] as

19.   [C] do much   20.   [B] each time

Part C (10 points)

21.   [B]   22.   [D]  23.   [C]  24.   [C]  25.   [A]

26.   [B]   27.   [D]  28.   [C]  29.   [A]  30.   [A]

31.   [D]  32.   [B]   33.   [A]  34.   [C]  35.   [B]

36.   [A]  37.   [D]  38.   [D]  39.   [A]  40.   [B]

Section II: Cloze Test (10 points)

41.   [B]   42.   [C]  43.   [C]  44.   [B]   45.   [D]

46.   [C]  47.   [A]  48.   [D]  49.   [A]  50.   [B]

Section III: Reading Comprehension (40 points)

51.   [D]  52.   [A]  53.   [D]  54.   [C]  55.   [A]

56.   [C]  57.   [A]  58.   [D]  59.   [B]   60.   [C]

61.   [A]  62.   [D]  63.   [C]  64.   [B]   65.   [B]

66.   [C]  67.   [D]  68.   [B]   69.   [A]  70.   [B]

Section IV: English-Chinese Translation (15 points)

71.   把标准化测试作为抨击目标是错误的,因为在抨击这类测试时,批评者不考虑其弊病来自人们对测试不甚了解或使用不当。

72.   这些预测在多大程度上为后来的表现所证实,这取决于所采用信息的数量、可靠性和适宜性,以及解释这些信息的技能和才智。

73.   因此,在某一特定情况下,究竟是采用测试还是其他种类的信息,或是两者同时使用,须凭有关相对效度的经验依据而定,也取决于诸如费用和有无来源等因素。

74.   一般地说,当所要测定的特征能很精确地界定时,测试最为有效;而当所要测定或预测的东西不能明确地界定时,测试的效果则最差。

75.   例如,测试并不弥补明显的社会不公;因此,它们不能说明一个物质条件差的年轻人,如果在较好的环境下成长的话,会有多大才干。

Section V: Writing (15 points)

76.   参考范文(略)

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