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2014年大学英语四级考试真题以及答案和讲解

日期:2013-8-1 15:11:20 来源:本站原创 访问量:

2010年12月大学英语四级考试真题以及答案和讲解:

    Part I Writing (30 minutes)

  Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled How Should Parents Help Children to Be Independent? You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.

  1. 目前不少父母为孩子包办一切

  2. 为了让孩子独立, 父母应该……

  How Should Parents Help Children to Be Independent?

  Part II Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

  Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

  A Grassroots Remedy

  Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in the country. The most popular leisure activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers (慢跑者) jog, they don’t run the streets. Every one of them instinctively heads to the park or the river. It is my profound belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not.

  But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived (丧失). I spent my boyhood climbing trees on Streatham Common, South London. These days, children are robbed of these ancient freedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and odd new perceptions about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found.

  The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the US: families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (多动症). Those whose accommodation had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%.

  A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A US study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, academic levels were raised across the entire school.

  Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and creativity.

  Most bullying (恃强凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎石) playground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds me unpleasantly of Sunnyhill School in Streatham, with its harsh tarmac, where I used to hang about in corners fantasising about wildlife.

  But children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls.

  One of the great problems of modern childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places.

  The life of old people is measurably better when they have access to nature. The increasing emphasis for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality.

  In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundings improve all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behaviour are reduced when there is contact with the natural world.

  Dr William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, states in his study, “A natural environment can reduce violent behaviour because its restorative process helps reduce anger and impulsive behaviour.” Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution.

  We tend to look on nature conservation as some kind of favour that human beings are granting to the natural world. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is profoundly damaging.

  Human beings are a species of mammals (哺乳动物). For seven million years they lived on the planet as part of nature. Our ancestral selves miss the natural world and long for contact with non-human life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stroked a cat, sat under a tree with a pint of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that.

  We need the wild world. It is essential to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without the wild world we are not more but less civilised. Without other living things around us we are less than human.

  Five ways to find harmony with the natural world

  Walk: Break the rhythm of permanently being under a roof. Get off a stop earlier, make a circuit of the park at lunchtime, walk the child to and from school, get a dog, feel yourself moving in moving air, look, listen, absorb.

  Sit: Take a moment, every now and then, to be still in an open space. In the garden, anywhere that’s not in the office, anywhere out of the house, away from the routine. Sit under a tree, look at water, feel refreshed, ever so slightly renewed.

  Drink: The best way to enjoy the natural world is by yourself; the second best way is in company. Take a drink outside with a good person, a good gathering: talk with the sun and the wind with birdsong for background.

  Learn: Expand your boundaries. Learn five species of bird, five butterflies, five trees, five bird songs. That way, you see and hear more: and your mind responds gratefully to the greater amount of wildness in your life.

  Travel: The places you always wanted to visit: by the seaside, in the country, in the hills. Take a weekend break, a day-trip, get out there and do it: for the scenery, for the way through the woods, for the birds, for the bees. Go somewhere special and bring specialness home. It lasts forever, after all.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

  1. What is the author’s profound belief?

  [A] People instinctively seek nature in different ways.

  [B] People should spend most of their lives in the wild.

  [C] People have quite different perceptions of nature.

  [D] People must make more efforts to study nature.

  2. What does the author say people prefer for their children nowadays?

  [A] Personal freedom.

  [B] Things that are natural.

  [C] Urban surroundings.

  [D] Things that are purchased.

  3. What does a study in Sweden show?

  [A] The natural environment can help children learn better.

  [B] More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill.

  [C] A good playground helps kids develop their physical abilities.

  [D] Natural views can prevent children from developing ADHD.

  4. Children who have chances to explore natural areas ________.

  [A] tend to develop a strong love for science

  [B] are more likely to fantasise about wildlife

  [C] tend to be physically tougher in adulthood

  [D] are less likely to be involved in bullying

  5. What does the author suggest we do to help children with ADHD?

  [A] Find more effective drugs for them.

  [B] Provide more green spaces for them.

  [C] Place them under more personal care.

  [D] Engage them in more meaningful activities.

  6. In what way do elderly people benefit from their contact with nature?

  [A] They look on life optimistically. [C] They are able to live longer.

  [B] They enjoy a life of better quality. [D] They become good-humoured.

  7. Dr William Bird suggests in his study that ________.

  [A] humanity and nature are complementary to each other

  [B] wild places may induce impulsive behaviour in people

  [C] access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence

  [D] it takes a long time to restore nature once damaged

  8. It is extremely harmful to think that humanity and the natural world can be________________________.

  9. The author believes that we would not be so civilised without ________________________.

  10. The five suggestions the author gives at the end of the passage are meant to encourage people to seek _________________ with the natural world.   Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  11. [A] The man should visit the museums.

  [C] The beach resort is a good choice.

  [B] She can’t stand the hot weather.

  [D] She enjoys staying in Washington.

  12. [A] Her new responsibilities in the company.

  [B] What her job prospects are.

  [C] What the customers’ feedback is.

  [D] The director’s opinion of her work.

  13. [A] Combine her training with dieting.

  [B] Repeat the training every three days.

  [C] Avoid excessive physical training.

  [D] Include weightlifting in the program.

  14. [A] When she will return home.

  [B] Whether she can go by herself.

  [C] Whether she can travel by air.

  [D] When she will completely recover.

  15. [A] The woman knows how to deal with the police.

  [B] The woman had been fined many times before.

  [C] The woman had violated traffic regulations.

  [D] The woman is good at finding excuses.

  16. [A] Switch off the refrigerator for a while.

  [B] Have someone repair the refrigerator.

  [C] Ask the man to fix the refrigerator.

  [D] Buy a refrigerator of better quality.

  17. [A] He owns a piece of land in the downtown area.

  [B] He has got enough money to buy a house.

  [C] He can finally do what he has dreamed of.

  [D] He is moving into a bigger apartment.

  18. [A] She is black and blue all over.

  [B] She has to go to see a doctor.

  [C] She stayed away from work for a few days.

  [D] She got hurt in an accident yesterday.

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  19. [A] She was a bank manager.

  [B] She was a victim of the robbery.

  [C] She was a defence lawyer.

  [D] She was a witness to the crime.

  20. [A] A tall man with dark hair and a moustache.

  [B] A youth with a distinguishing mark on his face.

  [C] A thirty-year-old guy wearing a light sweater.

  [D] A medium-sized young man carrying a gun.

  21. [A] Identify the suspect from pictures. [C] Have her photo taken for their files.

  [B] Go upstairs to sign some document. [D] Verify the record of what she had said.

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  22. [A] By reading a newspaper ad. [C] By listening to the morning news.

  [B] By seeing a commercial on TV. [D] By calling an employment service.

  23. [A] She could improve her foreign languages.

  [B] She could work close to her family.

  [C] She could travel overseas frequently.

  [D] She could use her previous experiences.

  24. [A] Taking management courses. [C] Working as a secretary.

  [B] Teaching English at a university. [D] Studying for a degree in French.

  25. [A] Prepare for an interview in a couple of days.

  [B] Read the advertisement again for more details.

  [C] Send in a written application as soon as possible.

  [D] Get to know the candidates on the short list.

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  Passage One

  Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  26. [A] They cannot see the firefighters because of the smoke.

  [B] They do not realize the danger they are in.

  [C] They cannot hear the firefighters for the noise.

  [D] They mistake the firefighters for monsters.

  27. [A] He travels all over America to help put out fires.

  [B] He often teaches children what to do during a fire.

  [C] He teaches Spanish in a San Francisco community.

  [D] He provides oxygen masks to children free of charge.

  28. [A] He saved the life of his brother choking on food.

  [B] He rescued a student from a big fire.

  [C] He is very good at public speaking.

  [D] He gives informative talks to young children.

  29. [A] Firefighters play an important role in America.

  [B] Kids should learn not to be afraid of monsters.

  [C] Carelessness can result in tragedies.

  [D] Informative speeches can save lives.

  Passage Two

  Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  30. [A] To satisfy the needs of their family.

  [B] To fully realize their potential.

  [C] To make money for early retirement.

  [D] To gain a sense of their personal worth.

  31. [A] They may have to continue to work in old age.

  [B] They may regret the time they wasted.

  [C] They may have nobody to depend on in the future.

  [D] They may have fewer job opportunities.

  32. [A] Making wise use of your time.

  [B] Enjoying yourself while you can.

  [C] Saving as much as you can.

  [D] Working hard and playing hard.

  Passage Three

  Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  33. [A] Hardworking students being accused of cheating.

  [B] Boy students being often treated as law-breakers.

  [C] Innocent people being suspected groundlessly.

  [D] Junior employees being made to work overtime.

  34. [A] Forbidding students to take food out of the restaurant.

  [B] Requesting customers to pay before taking the food.

  [C] Asking customers to leave their bags on the counters.

  [D] Allowing only two students to enter at a time.

  35. [A] He was taken to the manager. [C] He was asked to leave.

  [B] He was closely watched. [D] He was overcharged.

  Section C

  Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  注意:此部分试题在答题卡2上作答。

  Writing keeps us in touch with other people. We write to communicate with relatives and friends. We write to (36) _____________ our family histories so our children and grandchildren can learn and (37) _____________their heritage (传统). With computers and Internet connections in so many (38) _____________, colleges, business, people e-mailing friends and relatives all the time—or talking to them in writing in online (39) _____________ rooms. It is cheaper than calling long distance, and a lot more (40) _____________ than waiting until Sunday for the telephone (41) _____________ to drop. Students are e-mailing their professors to (42) _____________ and discuss their classroom assignments and to (43) _____________ them. They are e-mailing classmates to discuss and collaborate (合作) on homework. (44) __________________________________________________________.

  Despite the growing importance of computers, however, there will always be a place and need for the personal letter. (45) ____________________________________________________. No matter what the content of the message, its real point is, “I want you to know that I care about you.” (46) ____________________________________________________________________, but only in the success of human relationships.

  Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

  Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  What determines the kind of person you are? What factors make you more or less bold, intelligent, or able to read a map? All of these are influenced by the interaction of your genes and the environment in which you were 47 . The study of how genes and environment interact to influence 48 activity is known as behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics has made important 49 to the biological revolution, providing information about the extent to which biology influences mind, brain and behavior.

  Any research that suggests that 50 to perform certain behaviors are based in biology is controversial. Who wants to be told that there are limitations to what you can 51 based on something that is beyond your control, such as your genes? It is easy to accept that genes control physical characteristics such as sex, race and eye color. But can genes also determine whether people will get divorced, how 52 they are, or what career they are likely to choose? A concern of psychological scientists is the 53 to which all of these characteristics are influenced by nature and nurture(养育), by genetic makeup and the environment. Increasingly, science 54 that genes lay the groundwork for many human traits. From this perspective, people are born 55 like undeveloped photographs: The image is already captured, but the way it 56 appears can vary based on the development process. However, the basic picture is there from the beginning.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  [A] abilities [I] extent

  [B] achieve [J] indicates

  [C] appeal [K] proceeds

  [D] complaints [L] psychological

  [E] contributions [M] raised

  [F] displayed [N] smart

  [G] essentially [O] standard

  [H] eventually

  Section B

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  It is pretty much a one-way street. While it may be common for university researchers to try their luck in the commercial world, there is very little traffic in the opposite direction. Pay has always been the biggest deterrent, as people with families often feel they cannot afford the drop in salary when moving to a university job. For some industrial scientists, however, the attractions of academia (学术界) outweigh any financial considerations.

  Helen Lee took a 70% cut in salary when she moved from a senior post in Abbott Laboratories to a medical department at the University of Cambridge. Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions. Some areas of inquiry have few prospects of a commercial return, and Lee’s is one of them.

  The impact of a salary cut is probably less severe for a scientist in the early stages of a career. Guy Grant, now a research associate at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge, spent two years working for a pharmaceutical (制药的) company before returning to university as a post-doctoral researcher. He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities.

  Higher up the ladder, where a pay cut is usually more significant, the demand for scientists with a wealth of experience in industry is forcing universities to make the transition (转换) to academia more attractive, according to Lee. Industrial scientists tend to receive training that academics do not, such as how to build a multidisciplinary team, manage budgets and negotiate contracts. They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get a job when they graduate, says Lee, perhaps experience in manufacturing practice or product development. “Only a small number of undergraduates will continue in an academic career. So someone leaving university who already has the skills needed to work in an industrial lab has far more potential in the job market than someone who has spent all their time on a narrow research project.”

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  57. By “a one-way street” (Line 1, Para. 1), the author means ________.

  [A] university researchers know little about the commercial world

  [B] there is little exchange between industry and academia

  [C] few industrial scientists would quit to work in a university

  [D] few university professors are willing to do industrial research

  58. The word “deterrent” (Line 2, Para. 1) most probably refers to something that ________.

  [A] keeps someone from taking action [C] attracts people’s attention

  [B] helps to move the traffic [D] brings someone a financial burden

  59. What was Helen Lee’s major consideration when she changed her job in the middle of her career?

  [A] Flexible work hours. [C] Her preference for the lifestyle on campus.

  [B] Her research interests. [D] Prospects of academic accomplishments.

  60. Guy Grant chose to work as a researcher at Cambridge in order to ________.

  [A] do financially more rewarding work

  [B] raise his status in the academic world

  [C] enrich his experience in medical research

  [D] exploit better intellectual opportunities

  61. What contribution can industrial scientists make when they come to teach in a university?

  [A] Increase its graduates’ competitiveness in the job market.

  [B] Develop its students’ potential in research.

  [C] Help it to obtain financial support from industry.

  [D] Gear its research towards practical applications.

  Passage Two

  Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.

  Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, friends, neighbours, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity (长寿) boost seems to come from marriage or an equivalent relationship. The effect was first noted in 1858 by William Farr, who wrote that widows and widowers (鳏夫) were at a much higher risk of dying than their married peers. Studies since then suggest that marriage could add as much as seven years to a man’s life and two to a woman’s. The effect holds for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.

  Even if the odds are stacked against you, marriage can more than compensate. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can expect to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Likewise, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn’t smoke. There’s a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years following their spouse’s death, and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same severe problems. Even so, the odds favour marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have similar effects.

  So how does it work? The effects are complex, affected by socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological (生理的) mechanisms. For example, social contact can boost development of the brain and immune system, leading to better health and less chance of depression later in life. People in supportive relationships may handle stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner.

  A life partner, children and good friends are all recommended if you aim to live to 100. The ultimate social network is still being mapped out, but Christakis says: “People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected.”

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  62. William Farr’s study and other studies show that _________.

  [A] social life provides an effective cure for illness

  [B] being sociable helps improve one’s quality of life

  [C] women benefit more than men from marriage

  [D] marriage contributes a great deal to longevity

  63. Linda Waite’s studies support the idea that _________.

  [A] older men should quit smoking to stay healthy

  [B] marriage can help make up for ill health

  [C] the married are happier than the unmarried

  [D] unmarried people are likely to suffer in later life

  64. It can be inferred from the context that the “flip side” (Line 4, Para. 2) refers to _________.

  [A] the disadvantages of being married

  [B] the emotional problems arising from marriage

  [C] the responsibility of taking care of one’s family

  [D] the consequence of a broken marriage

  65. What does the author say about social networks?

  [A] They have effects similar to those of a marriage.

  [B] They help develop people’s community spirit.

  [C] They provide timely support for those in need.

  [D] They help relieve people of their life’s burdens.

  66. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

  [A] It’s important that we develop a social network when young.

  [B] To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network.

  [C] Getting a divorce means risking a reduced life span.

  [D] We should share our social networks with each other.

  Part Ⅴ Cloze (15 minutes)

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  Over half the world’s people now live in cities. The latest “Global Report on Human Settlements” says a significant change took place last year. The report 67 this week from U.N. Habitat, a United Nations agency.

  A century ago, 68 than five percent of all people lived in cities. 69 the middle of this century it could be seventy percent, or 70 six and a half billion people.

  Already three-fourths of people in 71 countries live in cities. Now most urban population 72 is in the developing world.

  Urbanization can 73 to social and economic progress, but also put 74 on cities to provide housing and 75 . The new report says almost two hundred thousand people move 76 cities and towns each day. It says worsening inequalities, 77 by social divisions and differences in 78 , could result in violence and crime 79 cities plan better.

  Another issue is urban sprawl (无序扩展的城区). This is where cities 80 quickly into rural areas, sometimes 81 a much faster rate than urban population growth.

  Sprawl is 82 in the United States. Americans move a lot. In a recent study, Art Hall at the University of Kansas found that people are moving away from the 83 cities to smaller ones. He sees a 84 toward “de-urbanization” across the nation.

  85 urban economies still provide many 86 that rural areas do not.

  67. [A] came on [C] came over

  [B] came off [D] came out

  68. [A] more [C] less

  [B] other [D] rather

  69. [A] By [C] Along

  [B] Through [D] To

  70. [A] really [C] ever

  [B] barely [D] almost

  71. [A] flourishing [C] thriving

  [B] developed [D] fertile

  72. [A] extension [C] raise

  [B] addition [D] growth

  73. [A] keep [C] lead

  [B] turn [D] refer

  74. [A] pressure [C] restraint

  [B] load [D] weight

  75. [A] surroundings [C] concerns

  [B] communities [D] services

  76. [A] onto [C] around

  [B] into [D] upon

  77. [A] pulled [C] drawn

  [B] driven [D] pressed

  78. [A] situation [C] treasure

  [B] wealth [D] category

  79. [A] when [C] unless

  [B] if [D] whereas

  80. [A] expand [C] invade

  [B] split [D] enlarge

  81. [A] in [C] with

  [B] beyond [D] at

  82. [A] common [C] ordinary

  [B] conventional [D] frequent

  83. [A] essential [C] primitive

  [B] prior [D] major

  84. [A] trend [C] direction

  [B] style [D] path

  85. [A] Then [C] For

  [B] But [D] While

  86. [A] abilities [C] possibilities

  [B] qualities [D] realities

  Part VI Translation (5 minutes)

  Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答,只需写出译文部分。

  87. ________________________________________________________(为了确保他参加会议), I called him up in advance.

  88. The magnificent museum ________________________________________(据说建成于) about a hundred years ago.

  89. There would be no life on earth ___________________________________________(没有地球独特的环境).

  90. ___________________________________(给游客印象最深的) was the friendliness and warmth of the local people.

  91. They requested that __________________________________________(我借的书还回图书馆) by next Friday.

  参考答案

  Part Ⅰ

  Writing

  How Should Parents Help Children to be Independent

  Nowadays, there is a growing concern over such a phenomenon, that is, some parents take care of almost everything concerned with their children, including study, work, marriage. Some parents believe that this is love, however, it is only to destroy children’s independence thoroughly.

  For the future of the next generation, more efforts should be made by parents to help their children to be independent. The fundamental one is to cultivate the awareness, namely, the importance and necessity of being independent, which is supposed to begin from childhood. Children should be taught that no one can be stronger and more helpful than themselves in this world.

  The quality of independence is so indispensable for us that parents had better act as a tutor, not a dictator. And only with parents’ trust, can the next generation accumulate confidence step by step.

  今年的作文主题非常贴近考生的生活,给了考生很大的发挥空间,擅长写日常生活细节的学生可以写上三五个句子勾勒父母对于子女的过度关爱,而擅长逻辑思考的学生则可以更多地阐述父母怎样的行为才可以培养子女独立的品格,而过度宠爱正导致了独立精神的消失。

  从具体操作的角度来说,对于基础较为薄弱的考生,这次的考试题目是比较容易套用模板的,第一段,把现实状况描述清楚;第二段,写清楚父母亲帮助子女独立的策略;第三段,呼吁父母亲多给自己一些自由。怎样解决(解决方案的优缺点)

  沪江考前模板专题里面关于解决问题类作文提到了类似的结构:

  In recent days, we have to face a problem-----A, which is becoming more and more serious.--------(说明A的现状).

  Confronted with A, we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, ---------------(解决方法一). For another -------------(解决方法二). Finally, --------------(解决方法三).

  Personally, I believe that -------------(我的解决方法). Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because --------------(带来的好处).

  像这样子的模板能够帮助无话可说,或者说英语表达能力比较弱的同学迅速找到思路,只需要填入关键的字词就可以完成作文。

  但是对于能够用流畅的英语表达自己的思路的同学来说,写作如果希望取得比较高的分数,则需要注意语言必须尽可能简洁才能够在规定字数以内说清楚自己的论点,而句子的表达要求,也从有话可说,上升到言之有理,甚至上升到语言精致优美,内在逻辑严密的高度了。

  在我们给出大家的这篇范文里面,三段文字结构清晰,语言简明优美又没有落入模板的窠臼,属于在临场作文中的优秀之作。

  Part Ⅱ

  Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning)

  1.A) People instinctively seek nature in different ways.

  解析:第一段最后一句直接给出关键字profound belief, whether 引导的从句对应答案中的instinctively

  2.D) Things that are purchased.

  解析:第二段最后一句,what is best对应题目中的prefer, that is to say作为暗示直接引出之后的things that can be bought,选择D

  3.B) More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill.

  解析:题干中有关瑞典研究,定位到第四段第一句,结合语义,不难得出B的正确答案

  4.D) are less likely to be involved in bullying

  解析:A选项具有干扰性,第三段结尾给出自然熏陶能够提高学生学科水平的线索,但考虑到快速阅读题的传统,即题目顺序对应文章顺序,所以应该定位到第四段之后的内容,即大段有关bullying的段落,得出答案D。

  5.B) Provide more green spaces for them.

  解析:对应第八段内容,作者通过否定患儿对药物的依赖性来给出自己的建议,结合全文主旨自然环境的重要性,得出B答案

  6.B) They enjoy a life of better quality.

  解析:第九段第二句点出老龄人口增长的侧重点是在高质量的生活水平上,紧接着又指出绿色的生活方式是达到该种高质量生活水平的最重要因素。

  7.C) access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence

  解析:十一段引文中can reduce violent behavior,直接对应C选项

  8.separated

  解析:题干是有关人们错误观念的问题,找到倒数第三段的关键段error引导的内容,再对应到humanity and the natural world,得出separated(照抄原文separable与can重复,separable本身词义即能够分离的)

  9.the wild world

  解析:最后一段第二句直接命中题干,照抄the wild world即可。

  10. harmony

  解析:最后几段内容的小标题直接给出harmony

  Part Ⅲ

  Listening Comprehension

  Section A

  短对话(11~18)

  答案及解析:

  11. A) The man should visit the museums. B) She can’t stand the hot weather.

  C) The beach resort is a good choice. D) She enjoys staying in Washington.

  答案:D

  解析:Woman最后说到I’ll be happy here no matter what the temperature. 这表明了她待在这里很愉快,很享受待在华盛顿,故选D。

  12. A) Her new responsibilities in the company.

  B) What her job prospects are.

  C) What the customers’ feedback is.

  D) The director’s opinion of her work.

  答案:D

  解析:Woman说到but I wish the director would give me some feedback. 这表明了她希望得到director的意见(即反馈),故选D。

  13. A) Combine her training with dieting.

  B) Repeat the training every three days.

  C) Avoid excessive physical training.

  D) Include weightlifting in the program.

  答案:C

  解析:Man以自己上次因运动(举重)过量而受伤为例,建议女士应该量力而行,避免过量运动,故选C。

  14. A) When she will return home. B) Whether she can go by herself.

  C) Whether she can travel by air. D) Whether she will completely recover.

  答案:C

  解析:Man开头就说到I’m worried about her going on a plane. 从中可知,他担心的是年老的母亲能不能乘飞机,故选C。

  15. A) The woman knows how to deal with the police.

  B) The woman had been fined many times before.

  C) The woman had violated traffic regulations.

  D) The woman is good at finding excuses.

  答案:C

  解析:警察开头问到 Why didn’t you stop when we first signaled you at the crossroads? 通过这句话就可以知道女士没有遵守交通规则,故选C。

  16. A) Switch off the refrigerator for a while.

  B) Have someone repair the refrigerator.

  C) Ask the man to fix the refrigerator.

  D) Buy a refrigerator of better quality.

  答案:B

  解析:Man说到 Maybe you should have it fixed,女士回答到You’re right.

  这说明女士也同意男士的看法,但并未提到让这个男士来修,故选B。

  17. A) He owns a piece of land in the downtown area.

  B) He has got enough money to buy a house.

  C) He can finally do what he has dreamed of.

  D) He is moving into a bigger apartment.

  答案:C

  解析:Man第二句话说到Now, I have enough money to buy that piece of land I’ve had my eye on and build a house on it. 表明他能实现买地建房的理想了,故选C。

  18. A) She is black and blue all over.

  B) She has to go to see a doctor.

  C) She stayed away from work for a few days.

  D) She got hurt in an accident yesterday.

  答案:D

  解析:Woman说的第一句话是My hands still hurts from the fall on the ice yesterday.从中可知这位女士昨天在冰上滑倒受伤了,但是男士认为伤势并不严重,只建议她休养几天就可以了,不必去看医生。C是较强的干扰项,应该是女士现在需要休息而不是过去已经休息了几天,故选D。

  对话精析:

  第一个短对话:

  谈论天气the heat is unbearable,强调有了华盛顿的museums and restaurants,天气再热也无所谓I’ll be happy here no matter what the temperature.

  学会看看生活中的积极因素,有了博物馆和餐馆,天气再热都热爱华盛顿,这是何等的乐天精神啊!

  第二个短对话:

  谈论新工作,I’m learning a lot of new things, but I wish the director would give me some feedback.我学了很多新东西呢,但是我希望上司能给我点反馈!!!feedback是反馈也是答案的题眼。这位女士想知道什么呢,想知道上司对她的看法嘛!

  第三个短对话:

  关于锻炼身体的,还是关于制定锻炼身体的计划的!Can you help me work out a physical training program, John?你能帮我制定个锻炼的项目吗?Sure, but whatever you do be careful not to overdo it. 当然啦,不过不管你做什么,得小心点别过头啊!接下来的句子是举例子Last time I had two weeks’ worth of weight-lifting in three days and I hurt myself.上次我三天就完成了两个星期的举重的训练,结果我就受伤了。

  问题是这个男人要建议这个女人什么?

  四六级考试委员会一片苦心啊,这里分明在告诫同学们,平时锻炼身体悠着点儿。

  第四个短对话:

  这个对话好!弘扬爱护老人的美德的!

  儿子说,我妈妈年纪大啦,I have an elderly mother 然后表达他对妈妈乘飞机的担心 I’m worried about her going on a plane. Is there any risk?有没有危险啊?

  接下来,医生的回答,再次体现四六级客观而乐观的精神,Not if her heart is all right. If she has a heart condition, I’d recommend against it.她心脏没问题就没事啊,如果她心脏有问题的话,那我就不建议她去(乘飞机啦)

  第五个短对话:

  交通违规怎么做?!四六级听力教你谦恭有礼做回答。首先,第一句的男士质问,Why didn’t you stop when we first signaled you at the crossroads?我们第一次示意让你在交叉口停车,你干嘛不停呢?(潜台词是,瞧,还不是被我给逮回来训话了么?!在这种情况之下,这位女士态度是诚恳的,Sorry, I was just a bit absent-minded. Anyway, do I have to pay a fine? 对不起啊,我有点心不在焉。但不管怎么说,我需要罚款吗?

  人嘛,都是有时候情绪化的嘛,并且我认罚,这句子学会了顺便大家开车的素质都提高了哈!

  第六个短对话:

  家庭琐事。

  第一个人说,I’m no expert我不是专家but that noise in your refrigerator doesn’t sound right. Maybe you should have it fixed.但是你冰箱里面的噪音听起来不大对啊,也许你应该去修理了吧。 have it fixed这个结构是考官们发誓要考生学会的have sth done的结构。

  第二个人开腔了,You’re right.对话基调钉牢,我同意你,就是冰箱确实坏了。And I suppose I’ve put it off long enough.我恐怕我已经拖得够久了,put off,另一个考官立誓要教会全中国考生的内容,拖延,put off,核心之核心。

  问题,这女的可能会怎么做呢?

  她学会了核心单词听懂了整个对话以后,一定会去修冰箱!!并且,这里强调 是找人修冰箱, have it fixed而不是她自己修! she will fix it herself.

  第七个短对话:

  买房问题。全国热议啊,考试考到的角度那是真叫一个艺术!

  我市区的公寓卖得不错!I did extremely well on the sale of my downtown apartment.也就是说卖了一个好价钱啦! Now, I have enough money to buy that piece of land I’ve had my eye on and build a house on it.现在,我可有钱买一块我早就看中的地啦,我能建一所房子啦!

  偷偷感叹下,这说明了城乡的房价是多么滴有茶具啊!不过考官还是仁慈的,不考那么隐晦的,来个简单的,听到这句话的人呢说Congratulations!Does that mean you’ll be moving soon?

  恭喜你啊,那这是不是说明你很快要搬家了啊?!

  问题问我们知道第一个陈述的那个男人什么情况?!简单,字面意思就够你用来解答了,卖公寓了有了钱买地建房子了!

  第八个短对话:

  还是运动,不过这里面涉及了一点点西方的固定搭配,black and blue又黑又蓝,这实际上说的是咱中文里面的, 身上摔得又青又紫。

  第一个人是在说她昨天在冰上摔了一跤,手到现在还疼呢,My hand still hurts from the fall on the ice yesterday. I wonder if I broke something.我想知道我是不是摔坏哪儿了啊

  (I wonder if这个句型好,走过路过不要错过,I wonder if I could get married with Sister Phoenix我真想知道我能不能娶凤姐啊?!)

  下面这位男士的回答是, I’m no doctor, but it’s not black and blue or anything. Maybe you just need to rest it for a few days. 我不是医生,但是如果没有什么又青又紫也没其他问题的话,也许你只是需要休息几天罢了。

  问题,此女发生了什么问题?

  答案,手摔了,焦虑,问了一男的,这男的很冷静,告诉她没啥事。

  长对话(19~25)

  答案及解析:

  19. What do we learn about the woman?

  答案:D) She was a witness to the crime.

  解析:文中男士需要女士描述一下抢劫银行的人(describe the man who robbed the bank)。选项中B提到了robbery,但是对话中没有说明女士是受害者(victim);D选项提到了她目击了某个犯罪经过,robbery显然是crime的一种。

  20. What did the suspect look like?

  答案:A) A tall man with dark hair and a moustache.

  解析:原文中提到The man was tall, six foot, and he had dark hair, and he had moustache.,对应选项A。

  21. What did the man finally asked the woman to do?

  答案:A) Identify the suspect from pictures.

  解析:对话结尾处,男士要求女士look at some photographs,很显然,他的目的是让女士通过照片来辨别嫌疑人。因此选择A。

  22. How did the woman get to know about the job vacancy?

  答案:A) By reading a newspaper ad.

  解析: job vacancy指空缺的职位。在对话一开始,女士就说到她的目的:I’m calling about the job that was in the paper last night.从这句话中可以看出她得知职位信息的来源是the paper last night,对应A选项。

  23. Why did the woman find the job appealing?

  答案:B) She could work close to her family.

  解析:本题关键词是appealing,意为引起兴趣的。女士提到她喜欢这份工作的原因是be near to the family.,close是near的同义替换词,因此选择B选项。

  24. What had the woman been doing in Geneva?

  答案:C) Working as a secretary.

  解析:女士提到她在日内瓦做了一些secretarial work,也就是选项C中的secretary。虽然她也提到之前在大学学习,但是她取得的学位是a degree in English,而非选项D中的a degree in French.

  25. What was the woman asked to do in the end?

  答案:C) Send in a written application as soon as possible.

  解析:对话中女士希望得到面试机会,但是男士要求先要递交书面申请(reply a writing to the advertisement),并不是所有人都能得到面试机会,因此选择答案C。

  题材考点分析:

  长对话第二篇围绕女士求职面试展开,男士问了很多关于女士个人信息的问题,女士做出回答。做题时需要考生把握住对话大意、抓住细节信息以及两人的态度。

  对话中的考点主要集中在细节、重点一些词组含义,以及同意词组替换。对话中关键信息包括:been working in Geneva, secretarial work, degree in English, be near to the family, applications in writing等。考题也正是针对这些关键信息出的,在听的时候考察考生对于细节的把握,尤其是叙述相同类型的事情时,更需要记下其中的区别,从而在做题时能够准确的选出选项。如对话中提到女士会French和English,区别是会说French,拿到了degree in English.

  其中有几题考察同义词组替换。比如23题中用close替换了near,24题中用secretary替换了secretarial work。选项中频频出现同义词组替换,由此可见考生平时应该注意积累同一个意思不同的表达法。

  另外,从说话的语气和表达情绪的词,也可以听出说话人的态度。比如女士在问到能否安排面试时,男士的回答 “Well, I’m afraid…” 由此看出男士否定了女士的想法。因此在做题中,很容易地排除了安排面试的选项。

  总体来说,这篇听力难度中等,关键是要抓住细节。

  Section B

  Passage One

  听力文章分析:

  本文难度不大,生词和难词不是很多,关键是整体上的及关键句的理解。先是消防队员在营救火灾中时常遇到小孩对消防队员的设备不熟悉,以为是带着面具的怪兽(monster),从而躲起来,无法得到及时营救而丧失的现象入手,引出Eric Velez为了防止此类现象再次发生,在社区里开始对孩子消防知识的教育。再举例进一步说明教育性质的演讲在拯救生命的巨大作用。最后再简略地说下此类演讲的其他作用。

  做题要点:

  (1) 抓关键句。一般篇章类听力,篇幅较长,听的时候一定要学会准确提取有用的信息,如原因目的、结果、数字、开头和结尾部分等。

  “because they think they have seen a monster” “To prevent such tragedies, fire fighter Eric Velez gives talks to children in his community, explaining that they should never hide during a fire.” “But it’s a fact that informative speaking saves lives.” “Pete Gentry in North Carolina rescued his brother who is choking on food,” “In addition to saving lives,”

  这几句就包括了所有题目的答案,只要抓住这几句并理解了其意,题目就不难做出。

  (2) 抓住细节,但无需执着于细节。

  本文的题目每题都设置了很多细节干扰项。如果太过执着于细节,如frightened by smoke and noise ;Eric Velez learnt Spanish from his immigrant parents 就会使得做题时容易被细节分心,从而无法立即准确地判断和加以选择。

  重点词汇:

  fire fighters 消防队员 monster怪兽、怪物 heartbreaks 伤心事 catch a glimpse of 瞥见 masked戴面具的 oxygen mask 氧气面罩 informative 教育性的,有益的

  答案及解析:

  26. D) They mistake the firefighters for monsters.

  解析:细节题,从开始when children catch a glimpse of the masked fire fighter but hide because they think they have seen a monster一句中便可得出因为不熟悉消防人员戴面具的形象,孩子们以为来救援的消防人员是怪兽,所以躲起来。所以选D。其他选项文中都没有涉及到。

  27. B) He often teaches children what to do during a fire.

  解析:本篇文章大篇幅讲的是Eric Velez给社区里的孩子讲解消防知识,让他们熟悉消防人员及消防工具的过程。选项A,put out fire虽然是Eric Velez的工作,但是本文重点不是在其消防员救活这个工作上,C、D选项很容易就可以排除。所以选B。

  28. A) He saved the life of his brother choking on food.

  解析:细节题,从Pete Gentry in North Carolina rescued his brother who is choking on food一句便可得出答案,文章中关于Pete Gentry的主要信息就是他救了噎着食物的弟弟。所以选A。做题时一定要把人名及其所做的事准确对应起来。

  29. D) Informative speeches can save lives.

  解析:主旨题,本文举了一个大例子,一下小例子来证明教育性的演说有救人性命的好处。虽然在文章最后也列举了下其他好处,但是主旨还是拯救生命。所以选D。其他几个选项都主要讲细节处,很容易就可以排除。

  Passage Two

  听力文章分析:

  本篇听力讲述的是截然不同的两种生活态度,一种是“make and save a lot of money in order to retire early”,另一种则是“live only for today”,作者在陈述两种不同态度之后,针对两种态度给出了自己的看法“it's better to pick the spend-all approach”。本篇听力不是太难,没有较难的词汇,虽然有几个需要注意的句式,如:“At the other extreme are people who live only for today. Why bother saving… ”等,但是通过上下文也是不难理解的,而且结构也比较清楚,基本上可以分为三部分:两种不同的态度和作者的观点,所考察的三道题也上针对了这三个主要的点。由此可见,听听力的时候依然首先要从全文来把握,把握文章的要点,在把握要点的基础上,有重点的去听一些细节,如与要点相关的原因和后果,以及作者本人对这些事情的看法,遇到与此相关的信号词或者关键词时就一定要注意重点记忆。

  答案及解析:

  30. C) To make money for early retirement.

  解析:本题考察原因,问为什么人们喜欢比较苛求但收入较高的工作,其实听力一开始就用in order to 给出了原因,即:retire early,所以选C项。

  31. A) They may have to continue to work in old age.

  解析:本题考察后果,问只为当下而活的人面临着什么危险,从“The earlier neglect of saving, however, makes it difficult not to work when you are older.”中可以看出A是正确选项,及在年老时有可能不得不继续工作。

  32. B) Enjoying yourself while you can.

  解析:本课考察文章作者的态度,从 “Postponing doing what you love and being with people you love until retirement can be a mistake.”中可以看出,作者认为想等到退休后再做自己想做的事情以及和自己喜欢的人在一起可能是一种错误,所以选B,即趁着自己还可以的时候要懂得享受生活。

  Passage Three

  听力文章分析:

  此篇短文听力难度适中。叙述者,即文中的speaker,通过记叙自己的境遇表达个人观点。三个自然段分别对应文章后的三道题,结构清晰明了,题目答案导向明确。

  第一段通过开篇点题引出本文话题,“以偏概全”着实有失公平;

  第二段记叙一个发生在Graben Gore 饭店的故事,关键句:A new sign in the window told the story. “No more than two students at a time”;

  第三段同样是记叙一个发生在药店的故事,故事情节较为简单。

  此三题听时关键在于抓关键句子,个别人名等不需做过多关注。

  答案及解析:

  33.C) Innocent people being suspected groundlessly。

  文章第一段中,由”How fair will that be”的前一句和后一句均可推出此答案。前一句即“一个邻居犯了法,所有的邻居们都成了怀疑对象”。后一句即“因为有些学生小偷小摸,所有的学生就都被当成小偷来看待……”,二者表明一个意思,即“无辜者被毫无理由的怀疑属实不公平”。

  34.D) Allowing only two students to enter at a time。

  第一个小故事中的一个关键句后面紧跟答案。该关键句为,”A new sign in the window told the story.”

  而这个sign的内容就是紧随其后的“No more than two students at a time”.

  35.B) He was closely watched.

  此题需要自己稍作总结,最后一个小故事说到文中的“我”去药店,却一直被盯着;此事让“我”很是不满。

  Section C

  36. preserve

  37. appreciate

  38. households

  39. chat

  40. convenient

  41. rates

  42. receive

  43. submit

  44. They are also sharing information about concerts and sports events, as well as jokes and their philosophies of life.

  45. A hand-written note to a friend or a family member is the best way to communicate important thoughts.

  46. This writing practice brings rewards that can’t be seen in bank accounts

  Part Ⅳ

  Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)

  Section A

  47. M) raised

  48. L) psychological

  49. E) contributions

  50. A) abilities

  51. B) achieve

  52. N) smart

  53. I) extent

  54. J) indicates

  55. G) essentially

  56. H) eventually

  47. raise在这里的意思是“养育”,the environment in which you were raised 意思是“你成长的环境”。

  48. "psychological activity"意思是“心理活动”,全句意思是“研究基因和外部环境如何相互作用影响人心理活动的学科被称为行为遗传学”。

  49. “make contributions to”为固定搭配,意为“为……做贡献”。

  50. “ability to …”意思是“做某事的能力”,在此处,全句意思是“任何一篇宣称人类做出某种行为的能力是基于生物学的研究都是有争议的”。

  51. "limitations to what you can achieve"意思是“对你所能达到的水平的限制”。

  52. 此处需填一个形容词,而且用来形容人,根据题意,smart符合题意,表示“机灵,可爱”。

  53. 此处填extent,主要是因为后面有to,“to the extent …”译为“……的程度”。

  54. indicate 意思是“表明,显示”。全句意为“越来越多的科学(现象)表明基因对人类很多特征有基础作用”。

  55. essentially 的意思是“实际上,本质上”。全句意为“从这个角度来讲,人一出生,本质上就像是还没洗出来的照片:相已经照了,但是最终会呈现多少就在于显影的过程了”。

  56. eventually 副词,意思是“最终,最后”。

  Section B来源:www.examda.com

  Passage One

  57. C) few industrial scientists would quit to work in a university

  推理题。“one-way street” 字面意思是“单行道”,含有只能从一个方向前进却很难往相反方向前进的意思,用了比喻用法。文章第二句就解释说明了这个“one-way street”在文中的含义。大学里的学者去商界创业的现象不算稀奇,但是反过来就不怎么常见。所以选择C选项。

  58. A) keeps someone from taking action

  推理题。“deterrent”有妨碍物的意思。在文中需要通过上下文来理解。单词前的意思是“薪水永远是最大的…因为很多人觉得到大学里工作就会减少工资,从而无法养家糊口。”从后面半句,我们可以推断出deterrent的意思,所以选A选项。

  59. B) Her research interests.

  细节题。答案在Para3Line3可以找到。“Her main reason for… to take advantage of the great freedom to choose research questions.”表明Helen Lee换行主要考虑到的是自己可以比较自由地选择研究领域,即个人的研究兴趣。所以选择B选项。

  60. D) exploit better intellectual opportunities

  细节题。本题比较简单,在Para3最后一句“felt it worthwhile for the great intellectual opportunities”就可以找到答案。

  61. A) Increase its graduates’ competitiveness in job market.

  推理题。本着一题对应一段的一般原则,我们应该在最后一段里找答案。“the demand for scientists with a wealth of experience in industry in…“that will help students get a job when they graduate”段落主要是在讲industrial scientists到大学教学后的主要贡献。所以选择A项。

  Passage Two

  62. D) marriage contributes to a great deal of longevity

  解析:第一段提到“but the biggest longevity boost seems to come from marriage or an equivalent relationship.”紧接着就说到“The effect was first noted in 1958 by William Farr,…”。句中的boost和选项D中的contribute有相近的意思,故选择D。

  63. B) marriage can help make up for ill heath

  解析:Linda Waite举例子说到一个有心脏病的已婚男人可以比未婚但是健康的男人多活4年。因此,婚姻可以弥补身体不健康带来的不利因素,故选B。

  64. A) the disadvantages of being married

  解析:flip side的愿意是唱片的另一面,在这里前面已经分析过婚姻的好处,这里指的就是婚姻的反面,故选A。

  65. A) They have effects similar to those a marriage.

  解析:第二段最后一句…how all kinds of social networks have similar effects. 故选择A。

  66. B) To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network.

  解析:最后一段提到如果想生活的更长久到100岁,就要发展自己的社交网络,故选B。

  Part Ⅴ

  Cloze

  答案:

  67. D came out

  68. C less

  69. D by

  70. A almost

  71. B developed

  72. C growth

  73. B lead

  74. A pressure

  75. B services

  76. B into来源:考试大的美女编辑们

  77. C driven

  78. C wealth

  79. C unless

  80. D expand

  81. C at

  82. C common

  83. A major

  84. D trend

  85. C but

  86. B possibilities

  解析:

  67. D came out 表示出版,公布,这里表示报告的公布。

  68. C less 根据上下文可知这里说的是都市人口的增长,强调之前的少和现在的多,所以用少于更合适。less than:少于,不到。

  69. D by 在这里表示截止到某时间为止。

  70. A almost 几乎,将近,对前面的解释,说明人口有多少。

  71. B developed 根据上下文意思,以及后文相对的developing world可知应该是发达国家,即:developed countries。

  72. C growth 仔细阅读的话可以发现下文就有答案,这里讲的是都市人口的增长,所以用growth。

  73. B lead lead to表示导致,通向,本段末也有出现过,在这里是说都市化有助于社会和经济的进步。

  74. A pressure 从下文的描述可以看出过快的都市化也给城市带来了巨大压力,所以选pressure。

  75. B services 服务,城市为人们提供住房和服务。

  76. B into 介词选择,move into 移入,迁入;固定搭配。

  77. C driven 表示推动,驱动,driven by 由…驱动,由什么原因引起的。

  78. C wealth 财富;social division and differences in wealth 社会分化和财富上的差距。

  79. C unless 除非,这里说的是除非城市规划更好,否则各部分财富分配不均的局面将可能导致犯罪问题。

  80. D expand 指扩张, expand into rural areas 扩张到农村地区。

  81. C at at a much faster rate 以更快的速度,固定搭配

  82. C common 表示某事件很普遍,平常。从下文的across America可知这种情况很普遍很常见。

  83. A major major cities,大城市,与后文中的smaller cities形成对比

  84. D trend 趋势,这里是对前面情况的概括,a trend toward de-urbanization 表示一种逆城市化的发展趋势。

  85. C but 表示转折,说城市还是有自身优点的,与前面的“逆城市化”形成转折关系。

  86. B possibilities 可能性,这里表示城市依然能够提供农村所不能提供的机会和可能性。

  整篇解析:

  这篇完型填空取材自2009年10月9日的VOA Special English节目,谈论的是城市发展的问题。从抓主旨的角度来说,这样一篇小小200词的文章,纵览了世界城市发展史,又横览了城市化带来的种种问题,里面的核心论点之间逻辑关联紧密,考生如果没有任何背景知识和推理能力,解题会遇到一定的困难。比如说第二个空格,很多考生在more 和less之中犹豫不决,在没有具体背景信息的情况之下,就需要依据上下文的文脉进行推理。既然强调的是城市化的迅速发展,从5%到几乎70%,这个5%前面究竟填入超过还是不到。从作者的叙述语气一致可以推知,他必定在感叹这个变化的巨大,因此前文应该是不到5%。对于into/at这样一些介词小词的考查历来都是完型填空的重点,move into cities/ at a faster rate,这都是比较容易选择的基础搭配。

  Part Ⅵ

  Translation

  87.___________________(为了确保他参加会议),I called him up in advance.

  解析:In order to ensure him to attend the meeting

  To ensure his attendance at the meeting

  【结构分析】本题句子的主干 “I called him up in advance”已经给出,无需翻译,需要翻译部分为“为了确保他能参加会议”。该部分在句子中作目的状语

  【考点解释】本题考查是目的状语。①目的状语可以由to/in order to来引导。②确保 ensure sb to do 确保某人做某事,ensure sth 确保某事

  【原句精释】为了确保他参加会议,我已经提前给他电话了。

  88.The significant museum________________(据说建成于)about a hundred years ago.

  解析:is said to have been built

  【结构分析】本题句子的主语为the significant museum,缺谓语,即(据说建成于)

  about a hundred years ago为时间状语。

  【考点解释】本题重点考查:①被动语态。主语museum与动词build之间为被动关系; 且bulid这一动作发生在过去。②据说 be said to;be said to+ 动词不定式的完成时,表示不定式表示的动作已经完成。

  【原句精释】据说这座意义深远的博物馆大约建成于一百年前。

  89.There would be no life on earth ____________________ (没有地球独特的环境)。

  解析: without its unique environment

  but for its unique environment

  【结构分析】本题句子含有There be结构。主干完整,there主语,would be 谓语,no life 表语,on earth 地点状语

  【考点解释】本题重点考查:①without的用法 without 是介词,后接名词;同时,表示“没有”,除without外,还可用but for;②单词拼写 unique adj.独特;environment n.环境 ③当名词重复出现时,可适当使用代词,避免重复。

  【原句精释】没有地球独特的环境,地球上就不会有生命。

  90.______________________________(给游客印象最深的)was the friendliness and warmth of the local people.

  解析:What impressed the tourists most

  【结构分析】本题句子为主系表结构,主语即考查部分,was 系动词,剩余部分为表语。

  【考点解释】本题重点考查①what引导的主语从句;what可引导句子充当主语;②impress用法 给…留下印象 impress sb;③最高级的用法most;结合考点②③,可推出“给…印象最深”为impress sb most

  【原句精释】当地人的友善与热情给游客们留下了最深的印象。

  91.They requested that ___________________________ (我借的书还回图书馆) by next Friday.

  解析:books I borrowed (should) be returned to the library

  I (should) return the book I borrowed to the library

  【结构分析】本题句子的主干部分分别是they 主语,request 谓语,后接that引导的宾语从句。

  【考点解释】①request的用法。request v. 要求;当request表示“要求”时,引导的宾语从句要使用虚拟语气,即(should)+ 动词原形。②定语从句。“我借的书”, the book (that) I borrowed;③单词的拼写。归还 return,借 borrow,图书馆 library ④本题就此题提供了两个版本的答案,但在表示“规定,规则”时,被动语态更为常用。

  【原句精释】他们要求我在下周五之前把借的书还回图书馆。

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