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1990年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题答案

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1990年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary

In each question, decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

EXAMPLE:

I was caught ________ the rain yesterday.

[A] in

[B] by

[C] with

[D] at

ANSWER: [A]

l.     Those two families have been quarrelling ________ each other for many years.

[A] to

[B] between

[C] against

[D] with

2.    There are many things whose misuse is dangerous, bur it is hard to think of anything that can be compared ________ tobacco products.

[A] in

[B] with

[C] among

[D] by

3.    “How often have you seen cases like this?” one surgeon asked another. “Oh, ________ times, I guess,” was the reply.

[A] hundred of

[B] hundreds

[C] hundreds of

[D] hundred

4.    Give me your telephone number ________ I need your help.

[A] whether

[B] unless

[C] so that

[D] in case

5.    You sang well last night. We hope you’ll sing ________.

[A] more better

[B] still better

[C] nicely

[D] best

6.    Those people ________ a general understanding of the present situation.

[A] lack of

[B] are lacking of

[C] lack

[D] are in lack

7.    Alone in a desert house, he was so busy with his research work that he felt ________ lonely.

[A] nothing but

[B] anything but

[C] all but

[D] everything but

8.    Grace ________ tears when she heard the sad news.

[A] broke in

[B] broke into

[C] broke off

[D] broke through

9.    She refused to ________ the car keys to her husband until he had promised to wear his safety belt.

[A] hand in

[B] hand out

[C] hand down

[D] down

10.   Michael found it difficult to get his British jokes ________ to American audiences.

[A] around

[B] over

[C] across

[D] down

11.   The book contained a large ________ of information.

[A] deal

[B] amount

[C] number

[D] sum

12.   Nowadays advertising costs are no longer in reasonable ________ to the total cost of the product.

[A] proportion

[B] correlation

[C] connection

[D] correspondence

13.   When she saw the clouds she went back to the house to ________ her umbrella.

[A] carry

[B] fetch

[C] bring

[D] reach

14.   We must ________ that the experiment is controlled as rigidly as possible.

[A] assure

[B] secure

[C] ensure

[D] issue

15.   He was knocked down by a car and badly ________.

[A] injured

[B] damaged

[C] harmed

[D] ruined

Section II: Reading Comprehension

Each of the three passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

Text 1

In May l989, space shuttle “Atlantis” released in outer space the space probe “Megallan,” which is now on her 15-month and one-billion-kilometer flight to Venus. A new phase in space exploration has begun.

The planet Venus is only slightly smaller than Earth; it is the only other object in the solar system, in fact, that even comes close to earth’s size. Venus has a similar density, so it is probably made of approximately the same stuff, and it has an atmosphere, complete with clouds. It is also the closest planet to earth, and thus the most similar in distance from the sun. In short, Venus seems to justify its long-held nickname of “earth’s twin.”

The surface temperature of Venus reaches some 900F. Added to that is an atmospheric pressure about 90 times Earth’s: High overhead in the carbon dioxide (CO2) that passes for air is a layer of clouds, perhaps 10 to 20 miles thick, whose little drops consist mostly of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Water is all but nonexistent.

Born with so many fundamental similarities to earth, how did Venus get to be so radically different: It is not just an academic matter. For all its extremes, Venus is a valuable laboratory for researchers studying the weather and climate of earth. It has no earth’s oceans, so the heat transport and other mechanisms are greatly simplified. In addition, the planet Venus takes 243 earth-days to turn once on its axis, so incoming heat from the sun is added and distributed at a more leisurely, observable pace.

16.   Venus is similar to Earth in ________.

[A] size and density

[B] distance from the sun

[C] having atmosphere

[D] all of the above

17.   The greatest value in studying Venus should be to ________.

[A] allow us to visit there

[B] understand Earth better

[C] find a new source of energy

[D] promote a new space program

18.   The main idea of this passage is about ________.

[A] problems of space travel

[B] scientific methods in space exploration

[C] the importance of Venus to Earth

[D] conditions on Venus

Text 2

Tourists were surprised to see a woman driving a huge orange tractor down one of Rome’s main avenues. Italy’s political leaders and some of its male union chiefs are said to have been even more puzzled to see that the tractor was followed by about 200,000 women in a parading procession that took more than three hours to snake through central Rome.

Shouting slogans, waving flags and dancing to drumbeats, the women had come to the capital from all over Italy to demonstrate for “a job for each of us, a different type of job, and a society without violence.” So far, action to improve women’s opportunities in employment has been the province of collective industrial bargaining. “But there is a growing awareness that this is not enough,” says a researcher on female labor at the government-funded Institute for the Development of Professional Training for Workers.

Women, who constitute 52 per cent of Italy’s population, today represent only 35 per cent of Italy’s total workforce and 33 per cent of the total number of Italians with jobs. However, their presence in the workplace is growing. The employment of women is expanding considerably in services, next to the public administration and commerce as their principal workplace. Official statistics also show that women have also made significant strides in self-employment. More and more women are going into business for themselves. Many young women are turning to business because of the growing overall in employment. It is also a fact that today many prejudices have disappeared, so that banks and other financial institutes make judgments on purely business considerations without caring if it is a man or a woman.

Such changes are occurring in the professions too. The number of women doctors, dentists, lawyers, engineers and university professors increased two to three fold. Some of the changes are immediately visible. For example, women have appeared on the scene for the first time as state police, railway workers and street cleaner.

However, the present situation is far from satisfactory though some progress has been made. A breakthrough in equal opportunities for women is now demanded.

19.   The expression “snake through central Rome” probably means “to move ________

[A] quietly through central Rome.”

[B] violently through central Rome.”

[C] in a long winding line through central Rome.”

[D] at a leisurely pace through central Rome.”

20.   Which of the following statements is NOT true?

[A] There are more women than men in Italy.

[B] In Italy, women are chiefly employed in services.

[C] In Italy, women are still at a disadvantage in employment.

[D] In Italy, about two-thirds of the jobs are held by men.

21.   About 200,000 women in Rome demonstrated for ________.

[A] more job opportunities

[B] a greater variety of jobs

[C] “equal job, equal pay”

[D] both A and B

22.   The best title for this passage would be ________.

[A] The Role of Women is Society

[B] Women Demonstrate for Equality in Employment

[C] Women as Self-employed Professionals

[D] Women and the Jobs Market

Text 3

The old idea that talented children “burn themselves out” in the early years, and, therefore, are subjected to failure and at worst, mental illness is unfounded. As a matter of fact, the outstanding thing that happens to bright kids is that they are very likely to grow into bright adults.

To find this out, l, 500 gifted persons were followed up to their thirty-fifth year with these results:

On adult intelligence tests, they scored as high as they had as children. They were, as a group, in good health, physically and mentally. 84 per cent of their group were married and seemed content with their lives.

About 70 per cent had graduated from college, though only 30 per cent had graduated with honors. A few had even dropped out, but nearly half of these had returned to graduate. Of the men, 80 per cent were in one of the professions or in business management or semiprofessional jobs. The women who had remained single had office, business, or professional occupations.

The group had published 90 books and 1,500 articles in scientific, scholarly, and literary magazines and had collected more than 100 patents.

In a material way they did not do badly either. Average income was considerably higher among the gifted people, especially the men, than for the country as a whole, despite their comparative youth.

In fact, far from being strange, most of the gifted were turning their early promise into practical reality.

23.   The old idea that talented children “burn themselves out” in the early years is ________.

[A] true in all senses

[B] refuted by the author

[C] medically proven

[D] a belief of the author

24.   The survey of bright children was made to ________.

[A] find out what had happened to talented children when they became adults

[B] prove that talented children “burn themselves out” in the early years

[C] discover the percentage of those mentally ill among the gifted

[D] prove that talented children never burn themselves out

25.   Intelligence tests showed that ________.

[A] bright children were unlikely to be mentally healthy

[B] between childhood and adulthood there was a considerable loss of intelligence

[C] talented children were most likely to become gifted adults

[D] when talented children grew into adults, they made low scores

Section III: Close Test

For each numbered blank in the following passage there are four choices labeled [A], [B], [C], and [D], choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. Read the whole passage before making your choice. (10 points)

No one knows for sure what the world would be like in the year 2001. Many books have been written __26__ the future. But the 19th-century French novelist Jules Verne may be called a futurologist in the fullest __27__ of the word. In his fantastic novels “A Trip to the Moon” and “80 Days Around the World,” he described with detail the aeroplane and even the helicopter. These novels still have a great attraction __28__ young readers of today because of their bold imagination and scientific accuracy.

Below is a description of what our life will be in the year 2001 as predicted by a __29__ writer.

In 2001, in the home, cookers will be set so that you can cook a complete meal at the touch of a switch.

Television will provide information on prices at the __30__ shops as well as news and entertainment. Videophones will bring pictures as well as __31__ to telephone conversations.

Machines will control temperature, lighting, entertainment, security alarms, laundry and gardening.

Lighting will provide decoration as well as wallpaper.

At work, robots will take __32__ most jobs in the manufacturing industries. Working hours will fall to under 30 hours a week. Holidays will get longer; six weeks will be the normal annual holiday. Men and women will retire at the same age.

Our leisure will be different too. The home will become the center of entertainment through television and electronic games. More people will eat out in restaurants __33__ they do today; also they will have a much wider variety of food available. There will be a change of taste towards a more savoury-flavored menu. New synthetic foods will form a __34__ part of people’s diets.

Foreign travel will __35__; winter holidays will become more popular than summer ones.

Also non-stop flights from Britain to Australia and New Zealand will be easily available and much cheaper. Education will become increasingly more important than ever before.

26.   [A] in

[B] of

[C] about

[D] for

27.   [A] sense

[B] meaning

[C] detail

[D] implication

28.   [A] for

[B] of

[C] on

[D] towards

29.   [A] today

[B] nowadays

[C] present-day

[D] present

30.   [A] near

[B] nearby

[C] nearly

[D] nearer

31.   [A] noise

[B] sound

[C] tone

[D] tune

32.   [A] to

[B] away

[C] off

[D] over

33.   [A] than

[B] as

[C] when

[D] while

34.   [A] usual

[B] popular

[C] daily

[D] regular

35.   [A] add

[B] increase

[C] raise

[D] arise

Section IV: Error-detection and Correction

Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts. These parts are labeled [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Identify the part of sentence that is incorrect and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. Then, without altering the meaning of the sentence, write down your correction on the line in the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

EXAMPLE:

You have to hurry up if you want to buy something because [A] there’s [B] hardly something [C] left. [D]

ANSWER: [C] anything

36.   Alice was having [A] trouble to control [B] the children because there were [C] so many [D] of them.

37.   We were very much surprised [A] that the [B] village was such [C] long way from [D] the road.

38.   John’s chance of being elected [A] chairman [B] of the committee is far [C] greater than Dick [D].

39.   “We have won [A] a [B] great victory on [C] our enemy [D],” the captain said.

40.   There are many valuable services [A] which the public are willing to pay for [B], but which does not bring [C] a return in money [D] to the community.

41.   The law I am referring [A] require that everyone [B] who owns [C] a car have [D] accident insurance.

42.   “I considered it [A] a honor [B] to be invited to address [C] the meeting of world-famous [D] scientists,” said Professor Leacock.

43.   He was seeing [A] somebody creeping [B] into the house through [C] the open [D] window last night.

44.   The reason for [A] all the [B] changes being made [C] has not explained [D] to us yet.

45.   Even though [A] the children pretended asleep [B], the nurses were not deceived [C] when [D] they came into the room.

Section V: Verb Forms

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs given in the brackets. Put your answers in the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

EXAMPLE:

It is highly desirable that a new president ________ (appointed) for this college.

ANSWER: (should) be appointed

46.   Buying clothes ________ (be) very time-consuming as you rarely find things that fit you nicely.

47.   They keep telling us it is of utmost importance that our representative ________ (send) to the conference on schedule.

48.   I must call your attention to the directions. Read them carefully and act as ________ (instruct).

49.   Emma said in her letter that she would appreciate ________ (hear) from you soon.

50.   I ________ (call) to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t.

51.   If Greg had tried harder to reach the opposite shore, we ________ (not have) to pick him up in the boat.

52.   After twenty years abroad, William came back only ________ (find) his hometown severely damaged in an earthquake.

53.   The lecture ________ (begin), he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leaving disturbed the speaker.

54.   The children were surprised when the teacher had them ________ (close) their books unexpectedly.

55.   A new road will be built here, and therefore a number of existing houses ________ (have to destroy).

Section VI: Chinese-English Translation

Translate the following into English (15 points)

56.   你应该仔细核对全部资料,以避免严重错误。

57.   尽管这个实验复杂,他们决心按时把它完成。

58.   一切迹象表明这个人对这里发生的情况毫无所知。

59.   只有那些不怕困难的人,才有可能在工作中取得卓越的成果。

60.   这篇作品与其说是短篇小说,不如说更像是新闻报导。

Section VII: English-Chinese Translation

Translate the following passage carefully and then translate the sentences underlined into Chinese. (20 points)

People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.

Social scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of questions. (61) They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet, but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature vs. nurture.”

(62) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (63) That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.

Taken to an extreme, this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.

Those who support the “nurture” theory, that is, they advocate education, are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist, B. F. Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. (64) The behaviorists maintain that, like machines, humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.

Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic, intelligence, offered by the two theories. (65) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say: They don’t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand, behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences. (66) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (67) In the United States, blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature” proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites. (68) Behaviorists, in contrast, say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.

Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.

 

1990年参考答案

Section I: Structure and Vocabulary (15 points)

1.    [D]  2.    [B]   3.    [C]  4.    [D]  5.    [B]

6.    [C]  7.    [B]   8.    [B]   9.    [D]  10.   [C]

11.   [B]   12.   [A]  13.   [B]   14.   [C]  15.   [A]

Section II: Reading Comprehension (20 points)

16.   [D]  17.   [B]   18.   [C]  19.   [C]  20.   [B]

21.   [D]  22.   [B]   23.   [B]   24.   [A]  25.   [C]

Section III: Cloze Test (10 points)

26.   [C]  27.   [A]  28.   [A]  29.   [C]  30.   [B]

31.   [B]   32.   [D]  33.   [A]  34.   [D]  35.   [B]

Section IV: Error-detection and Correction (10 points)

36.   [B] controlling 37.   [C] such a

38.   [D] Dick’s      39.   [C] over

40.   [C] do not bring     41.   [A] referring to

42.   [B] an honor   43.   [A] saw

44.   [D] has not been explained    45.   [B] to be asleep

Section V: Verb Forms (10 points)

46.   is     47.   (should) be sent

48.   instructed       49.   hearing

50.   should have called  51.   would not have had

52.   to find     53.   having begun

54.   close       55.   will have to be destroyed

Section VI: Chinese-English Translation (15 points)

56.   You should check all data the carefully so as to avoid serious mistakes.

57.   Although the experiment is complicated, they are determined to finish it on time.

58.   All signs showed that the man knew nothing of what had happened here.

59.   Only those who are not afraid of any difficulties have the chance of achieving outstanding results in their work.

60.   This piece of writing is more like a news report than a short story.

Section VII: English-Chinese Translation (20 points)

61.   他们想要说明,为什么我们具有某些性格特征和表现出某些行为。

62.   在这场争论中,赞成“天性”一方的那些人认为,我们的性格特征和行为模式大多是由生物因素所决定的。

63.   这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是微不足道的。

64.   行为主义者坚信,人象机器一样,对环境的刺激作出反应,这是他们行为的基础。

65.   支持“天性”论的人坚持说,我们生来就具有一定的学习才能,这是由生物因素决定的。

66.   行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激物的环境里成长,而这些刺激物能够发展其作出适当反应的能力,那么,这个儿童将会有更高的智力发展。

67.   在美国,黑人在标准化智力测试中的成绩常常低于白人。

68.   相反,行为主义者认为,成绩的差异是由于黑人往往被剥夺了白人在教育及其它环境方面所享有的许多有利条件。
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